Whitefield and Wesleyan Perfectionism
are aware of the fact that George Whitefield and John Wesley had
differences. But what actually were those differences? Where did they
come from? And how did they affect their relationship.
together in the Holiness Club at Oxford, they believed and preached
essentially the same evangelical doctrines. Whitefield was Calvinistic
and Wesley was Arminian and eventually these two positions put space
between them. Then along came a major misunderstanding, mostly on
Whitefield's part that caused a breach. Although they had heated
correspondence between themselves, they remained friends and held each
other in high esteem.
paper by Timothy L. Smith explores these issues most capably and opens
our eyes to what really happened.
Mahan and the Development of American Holiness Theology
This paper by Donald Dayton was originally published in
the Wesleyan Theological Journal. Dayton traces the development of
American holiness theology through the writings of Asa Mahan. "By
concentrating on Asa Mahan, who embodies within himself so much of this
theological transition, we have also seen more clearly the close
interrelationships between the major holiness currents in the nineteenth
century: Oberlin perfectionism, the Methodistic holiness movement, and
the Keswick movement."
Regardless of what doctrinal approach one takes to
holiness, this paper provides a brief overview of the development of
holiness teaching in the Nineteenth Century. Some readers will be quite
surprised when their "truth" on the subject came into being.
The Holiness People; The Things We Beleive and Teach
Movement never set out to become a church and it has never been
monolithic in the particulars of what the various holiness churches and
groups believe and practice. Nevertheless, there is a consistency in the
core believe of entire sanctification and Christian perfection which are
essential to holiness.
presents a sensitive and satisfying apology, confronting many of the
misconceptions perpetuated against holiness and the things We, the
holiness people actually believe.
John W. V.
as expressed in the term "perfect love", suggests that
holiness people should have no problem practicing unity. However, unity
among the holiness movement has been anything but a given fact. In fact,
the holiness movement seemed to practice more division and disunion than
Christian sects in general.
presents a historical review of the holiness movement in its early days
and its practice of having associations while trying to remain a
movement within traditional Protestant denominations. That did not work,
but lead only to the creation of smaller "holiness" oriented
man, D. S. Warner, appears to have had a Biblical and practical outlook
on holiness and unity. Smith highlights a few of Warner's critical
points on the topic.
Conservative Holiness Movement
file research report by Sidwell is an excellent overview of the Holiness
Movement in the United States. In particular, he follows the Movement
into recent times noting the division of the Movement into a more
liberal side and a conservative side, the main focus of the paper.
Conservative Holiness Movement has been a much ignored segment of the
Christian church in America. Often it has been passed over as a mere
forerunner of the modern Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements, to which
it bears no real resemblance.
standards, the teaching of entire sanctification, and forms of
government have been the main issues that separate this Movement from
the more liberal holiness churches. This paper is a MUST READ for any
serious student of church history and the history of the Holiness
Days of the Holiness Movement in the Southwest
1919, Jernigan recounts the introduction of the teachings of holiness in
the Southwestern parts of the United States.
preaching started infiltrating established denominations, it was met
with persecution and many good people were driven out of the churches
they grew up in.
holiness associations were developed for the encouragement of holiness
people. These associations rejected the idea of forming new churches and
insisted that all their members be members of churches.
In time, small
holiness denominations and independent churches were formed. Over time,
many of these small churches united and eventually the Church of the
Nazarene was formed.
Please see our
Church of God section for books relating the development and spread of
the Church of God Movement.
Reasons Why I Am Leaving The Church Of The Nazarene
is mentioned in the above article on "The Conservative Holiness
Movement." Griffith left the Church of the Nazarene and formed the
Bible Missionary Union, which later became the Bible Missionary Church.
Griffith gives his reasons why he left the Church of the Nazarene in
this short book. His points are similar with other holiness leaders that
left older holiness denominations at this time (about 1956).
New Connexion Methodist to William Booth
before his death, John Wesley perceived a future division among the
people called Methodists. As he anticipated, this division happened shortly
after his death in 1791. The Methodist movement migrated into three
separate and antagonistic groups, one of which was the New Methodist
of the NMC came a man who made a name for himself in the annals of the
greater holiness movement--William Booth, the founder of the Salvation
Army. As a successful evangelist with the NMC, he was ostracized because
of his passion to take the gospel to those suffering in poverty and
in the American Holiness Tradition
Dieter contends that although the early American Holiness
tradition began with a sense of primitivism, it actually has its roots
in the historic church through John Wesley.
Primitivism is the concept that to be the church as
taught in the Bible, we must act and believe as did the Early Church in
the New Testament. Primitivism began in the early nineteenth century in
this country. There were essentially two approaches to primitivism: (1)
restitutionism, or restoring the original church that was lost in the
Dark Ages and through the Protestant Reformation; and (2) reformationism,
or reforming the present church so that it conforms to the Bible model.
This is a very interesting article for people who understand the concept.
Sanctification in Early American Methodism: 1812 to 1835
Holiness Movement in the United States began in mid-Nineteenth Century.
Up to this time, Methodism was the exponent of holiness, perfection, and
entire sanctification. Coopedge gives a very interesting discussion of
the influence of Methodism on holiness during the decades preceding the birth
of the modern holiness movement. Enlightening!
Brengle and the Development of the Pneumatology of the Salvation Army
paper is very well researched and documented giving some background on
the development of holiness thinking and the influence of Phoebe Palmer
on holiness teaching during the early days of the Holiness Movement.
theology of the Mid-Nineteenth-Century Holiness Movement lay on a
spectrum between the gradualism of Wesley to the instantaneous take it
by faith of Palmer. Brengle drew a line more on the side of Wesley
seeing entire sanctification as an instantaneous experience with a
gradual development: a synergy of God's grace and man's obedience.
Pentecost: The Wesleyan Holiness Revival of 1758-1763
people have a tendency to look at the history surrounding John Wesley and
the Methodist Movement through rose colored glasses. We see the glory and
excitement, the persecution, but we tend to overlook the conflict
within the Movement itself.
the height of success most often comes the agony of consolidation of the
gains. While the Movement was largely successful, it was not without its
gives us a brief historical overview of the time and some of the
difficulties that accompanied the Revival. During the lifetime of Wesley,
there was far more success than failure. When the Revival began to cool in
England, it heated up in America.
Interpretation in the American Holiness Movement: 1875–1920
people view the Bible as the source of all inspired truth, the foundation
and epitome of all doctrine. One would think, then, that all holiness
people would be consistent in their interpretation of the Bible,
especially on the doctrine salvation and particularly sanctification. But
this, painfully, is not so. In this paper, Lennox, contrasts Biblical
interpretation practices among the American Holiness Movement with that of
Century of Holiness Theology
the Holiness Movement has always stressed the teaching and experience of
entire sanctification, there has not been a total and consistent agreement
as to what entire sanctification is or how it is achieved.
article is a review of the book written by Mark Quanstrom in which he
explores the history of this vital doctrine in the teachings of the Church
of the Nazarene. The angst and controversy surrounding this doctrine in
the largest American holiness denomination mirrors almost perfectly that
of all other holiness denominations and fellowships.
conclusion of this article lists 12 doctrines that should typify holiness
reaching regardless of any group's view of entire sanctification.
American Holiness Movement's Paradigm Shift Concerning Pentecost
article is a must read to help understand the transition from original
Wesleyan views on the baptism of the Holy Spirit and entire sanctification
and the Wesleyan-Holiness views now common in most holiness churches. The
evolution of the teaching is quite dramatic and it is the source of
disagreement within the holiness community today. While there is no
justification for this disagreement as both sides can be harmonized if
they would be willing to listen to each other, it is good for the
inquiring student of holiness to be aware of these differences.
excellent bibliography is included with this article!
Baptism of the Holy Spirit as Related to the Work of Entire
short study in which Mattke explores the association of the Baptism of the
Holy Spirit with entire sanctification.
baptism has been controversial in the history of the church, but the
baptism of the Holy Spirit has been largely ignored except by the Holiness
Movement in modern times. Even here, there is not agreement on the meaning
of these crucial terms.
somewhat summarizes his study in these words: "Is it not within the
realm of possibility that the Holy Spirit initiates a baptism in
regeneration which is consummated in entire sanctification?"
Holiness Churches: A Significant Ethical Tradition
presents a concise but short history of the holiness movement, including
the origins of many of the prominent holiness churches and groups. He also
contrasts holiness churches with modern fundamentalism and evangelicalism,
stressing the the difference between the doctrinal focus of evangelicalism
and the ethical focus of the holiness tradition. This article brings a
much needed sense of credibility and relevance to the holiness tradition
in modern times. The reader may be genuinely surprised at some of the
accomplishments of the holiness movement in the arena of social justice;
there are some things for which the modern social progressives take
the credit that were actually born into American society out of the
preaching of holiness.
Perfection: Toward a New Paradigm
article might shock the sensibilities of many conservative holiness
people. Dunning points out some characteristics of earlier holiness
movements, such as valuing experience and testimony over sound theological
work, which he feels is responsible for the demise of holiness in modern
times--or at least an "identity crisis."
gives an intellectual discussion on how that approach was of temporary
value and driven by the culture of revivalism. He replaces cleansing and
purity with maturity of character. In other words, he redefines
"perfection" with something short of biblical perfection.
closes with an admission that he has not regarded the work of the Holy
Spirit--divine assistance--but doesn't say what that has to do with
this, one will understand more about why the modern holiness movement has made itself ineffective.
Pentecostal League of Prayer: A Transdenominational British
Americans are aware the England was the "birthplace" of the
holiness movement beginning with the Methodist revivals under John Wesley.
The United States became a place for a great deal of advance in holiness
and because of that we have very little knowledge of the development of
holiness in England.
Pentecostal League of Prayer came into being in the later nineteenth
century as an attempt to revive and further the holiness movement in
England. One goal of the League was to promote the teaching and experience
of entire sanctification in all denominations of England. It was not met
without opposition and division.
name related to this movement familiar to Americans is Oswald Chambers.
word "Pentecostal" in the name does not refer to Pentecostalism
associated with "speaking in tongues," it refers to the Baptism
of the Holy Spirit as on the Day of Pentecost.
short article that provides a brief and concise synopsis of the
development of the holiness movement in the United States.