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HISTORY OF THE REFORMATION

OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY

 

by

 

J. H. Merle D’Aubigné

 

President of the Theological School of Geneva, and Vice President of the Societe Evangelique.

 

VOLUMES I. TO V.

 

Volumes I., II., and III., translated by H. White, B.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, M.A. and Ph. Dr. Heidelberg, and carefully revised by the author, who has made numerous important additions not to be found in any other translation; vol. IV. the english original by Dr. Merle D’Aubigne’, assisted by Dr. White; and vol. V. translated by Dr. White, and carefully revised by the author J’appelle accessoire, l’estat des affaires de coste vie caduque et transitoire. J’appelie principal, le gouvernement spiritual auquel reluit souverainement la providence de Dieu. - Theodore de Bèze.

By accessory, I mean the state of affairs in this frail and transitory life; by principal, the spiritual government in which God’s providence rules supreme. - Theodore Beza.

 

--- CONTENTS ---

 

 

 VOLUME FIRST

 

BOOK 1 STATE OF EUROPE BEFORE THE REFORMATION.

 

PREFACE TO VOLUME FIRST

 

CHAPTER 1

 

Christianity — Two distinctive Principles — Rise of the Papacy — Early Encroachments — Influence of Rome — Co-operation of the Bishops and of the Sects — Visible Unity of the Church — Invisible Unity of the Church — Primacy of St. Peter — Patriarchates — Co-operation of Princes — Influence of the Barbarians — Rome invokes the aid of the Franks — Secular Power — Pepin and Charlemagne — The Decretals — Disorders of Rome — The Emperor, the Pope’s Suzerain — Hildebrand — His Character — Celibacy — Struggle with the Empire — Emancipation of the Pope — Hildebrand’s Successors — The Crusades — The Empire — The Church

 

CHAPTER 2

 

Grace — Dead Faith — Works — Unity and Duality — Pelagianism — Salvation at the Hands of the Priests — Penance — Flagellations — Indulgences — Works of Supererogation — Purgatory — The Tariff — Jubilee — The Papacy and Christianity — State of Christendom

 

CHAPTER 3

 

Religion — Relics — Easter Revels — Morals — Corruption — Disorders of the Priests, Bishops, and Popes — A Papal Family — Alexander VI — Caesar Borgia — Education — Ignorance — Ciceronians

 

CHAPTER 4

 

Imperishable Nature of Christianity — Two Laws of God — Apparent Strength of Rome — Secret Opposition — Decline — Threefold Opposition — Kings and People — Transformation of the Church — The Pope judged in Italy — Discoveries of Kings and their Subjects — Frederick the Wise — Moderation and Expectation

 

CHAPTER 5

 

Popular Feeling — The Empire — Providential Preparations — Impulse of the Reformation — Peace — The Commonalty — National Character — Papal Yoke — State of the Empire — Opposition at Rome — Middle Classes — Switzerland — Courage — Liberty — Smaller Cantons — Italy — Obstacles to the Reform — Spain — Obstacles — Portugal — France — Preparations — Disappointment — The Low Countries — England — Scotland — The North — Russia — Poland — Bohemia — Hungary

 

CHAPTER 6

 

Roman Theology — Remains of Life — Justification by Faith — Witnesses to the Truth — Claudius — The Mystics — The Waldenses — Valdo — Wickliffe — Huss — Prediction — Protestantism before the Reformation — Anselm — Arnoldi — Utenheim — Martin — New Witnesses in the Church — Thomas Conecte — The Cardinal of Crayn — Institoris — Savonarola — Justification by Faith — John Vitrarius — John Lallier — John of Wesalia — John of Goch — John Wessel — Protestantism before the Reformation — The Bohemian Brethren — Prophecy of Proles — Prophecy of the Eisenach Franciscan

 

CHAPTER 7

 

Third Preparation — Letters — Revival — Recollections of Antiquity in Italy — Influence of the Humanists — Christianity of Dante — Valla — Infidelity in Italy — Platonic Philosophy — Commencement of Learning in Germany — Young Students — Printing — Characteristics of German Literature — The Learned and the Schoolmen — A New World — Reuchlin — Reuchlin in Italy — His Labors — His Influence in Germany — Mysticism — Contest with the Dominicans

 

CHAPTER 8

 

Erasmus — Erasmus a Canon — At Paris — His Genius — His Reputation — His Influence — Popular Attack — Praise of Folly — Gibes — Churchmen — Saints — Folly and the Popes — Attack on Science — Principles — Greek New Testament — His Profession of Faith — His Labors and Influence — His Failings — Two Parties — Reform without Violence — Was such Possible? — Unreformed Church — His Timidity — His Indecision — Erasmus loses his Influence with all Parties

 

CHAPTER 9

 

The Nobility — Different Motives — Hutten — Literary League — Literae Obscurorum Virorum — Their Effect — Luther’s Opinion — Hutten at Brussels — His Letters — Sickengen — War — His Death — Cronberg — Hans Sachs — General Ferment

 

BOOK 2 THE YOUTH, CONVERSION, AND EARLY LABORS OF LUTHER. 1483-1517.

 

CHAPTER 1

 

Luther’s Descent — His Parents — His Birth — His Poverty — Paternal Home — Severity — First Knowledge — School of Magdeburg — Hardships — Eisenach — The Shunamite — House of Cotta — Arts — Recollections of these Times — His Studies — Trebonius — The University

 

CHAPTER 2

 

The University — Scholastic Divinity and the Classics — Luther’s Piety — Discovery of the Bible — Illness — Luther admitted MA — Conscience — Death of Alexis — The Thunder Storm — Providence — Farewell — Luther enters a Convent

 

CHAPTER 3

 

His Father’s Anger — Pardon — Humiliation — The Sack and the Cell — Endurance — Luther’s Studies — St Augustine — Peter d’Ailly — Occam — Gerson — The Chained Bible — Lyra — Hebrew and Greek — Daily Prayers — Asceticism — Mental Struggles — Luther during Mass — Useless Observances — Luther in a Fainting-fit

 

CHAPTER 4

 

Pious Monks — Staupitz — His Piety — Visitation — Conversations — The Grace of Christ — Repentance — Power of Sin — Sweetness of Repentance — Election — Providence — The Bible — The aged Monk — Forgiveness of Sins — Ordination — The Dinner — Festival of Corpus Christi — Luther made Professor at Wittenberg

 

CHAPTER 5

 

The University of Wittenberg — First Instructions — Biblical Lectures — Sensation — Luther Preaches at Wittenberg — The Old Chapel — Impression produced by his Sermons

 

CHAPTER 6

 

Journey to Rome — Convent on the Po — Sickness at Bologna — Recollections of Rome — Julius II — Superstitious Devotion — Profanity of the Clergy — Conversations — Roman Scandals — Biblical Studies — Pilate’s Staircase — Effects on Luther’s Faith and on the Reformation — Gate of Paradise — Luther’s Confession

 

CHAPTER 7

 

Luther returns to Wittenberg — Made Doctor of Divinity — Carlstadt — Luther’s Oath — Principle of the Reformation — Luther’s Courage — Early Views of Reformation — The Schoolmen — Spalatin — Reuchlin’s Quarrel with the Monks

 

CHAPTER 8

 

Faith — Popular Declamations — Academic Teaching — Luther’s Purity of Life — German Theology or Mysticism — The Monk Spenlein — Justification by Faith — Luther on Erasmus — Faith and Works — Erasmus — Necessity of Works — Luther’s Charity

 

CHAPTER 9

 

Luther’s First Theses — The Old Adam and Grace — Visitaton of the Convents — Luther at Dresden and Erfurth — Tornator — Peace and the Cross — Results of Luther’s Journey — His Labors — The Plague

 

CHAPTER 10

 

The Relics — Relations of Luther with the Elector — Advice to the Chaplain — Duke George — His Character — Luther’s Sermon before the Court — Dinner at Court — Evening with Emser

 

CHAPTER 11

 

Return to Wittenberg — Theses — Free Will — Nature of Man — Rationalism — Proposal to the University at Erfurth — Eck — Urban Regius — Luther’s Modesty — Effect of the Theses

 

BOOK 3 THE INDULGENCES AND THE THESES — MAY 1517-1518

 

CHAPTER 1

 

Procession — Tetzel — Tetzel’s Sermon — Confession — Four Graces — Sale — Public Penance — Letter of Indulgence — Exceptions — Amusements and Dissipation

 

CHAPTER 2

 

The Franciscan Confessor — The Soul in the Burial-ground — The shoemaker of Hagenau — The Students — Myconius — Conversation with Tetzel — Trick of a Nobleman — Remarks of the Wise and of the people— A Miner of Schneeberg

 

CHAPTER 3

 

Leo X — The Pope’s Necessities — Albert — His Character — Farming the Indulgences — Franciscans and Dominicans

 

CHAPTER 4

 

Tetzel approaches — Luther in the Confessional — Tetzel’s Anger — Luther has no Plan — Jealousy on Orders — Luther’s Sermon — The Elector’s Dream

 

CHAPTER 5

 

Festival of All-Saints — Theses — Their Strength — Moderation — Providence — Letter to Albert — Indifference of the Bishops — Dissemination of the Theses

 

CHAPTER 6

 

Reuchlin — Erasmus — Flek — Bibra — The Emperor — The Pope — Myconius — The Monks — Apprehensions — Adelman — An aged Priest — The Bishop — The Elector — The Townspeople of Erfurth — Luther’s Answer — Disorder — Luther’s Mainspring

 

CHAPTER 7

 

Tetzel’s Attack — Luther’s Reply — Good Works — Luther and Spalatin — Study of Scripture — Scheurl and Luther — Doubts on the Theses — Luther pleads for the People — A New Coat

 

CHAPTER 8

 

Frankfort Discussion — Tetzel’s Theses — Menaces — Knipstrow’s Opposition — Luther’s Theses burnt — The Monks — Luther’s Peace — Tetzel’s Theses burnt — Grief of Luther

 

CHAPTER 9

 

Prierio — System of Rome — Dialogue — System of Reform — Answer to Prierio — The Word — The Pope and the Church — Hochstraten — The Monks — Luther replies — Eck — The School — The Obelisks — Luther’s Sentiments — The Asterisks — Rapture

 

CHAPTER 10

 

Popular Writings — The Lord’s Prayer — Our Father — Who art in Heaven — Hallowed by thy Name — They Kingdom come — Thy Will be done — Our Daily Bread — Sermon on Repentance — Remission of Sins cometh from Christ

 

CHAPTER 11

 

Apprehensions of his Friends — Journey to Heidelberg — Bibra — Palatine Palace — Rupture — The Paradoxes — Disputation — The Audience — Bucer — Brentz — Snepf — Conversations with Luther — Labors of these young Doctors — Effects on Luther — The aged Professor — The true-Light — Arrival

 

BOOK 4 LUTHER BEFORE THE LEGATE. MAY TO DECEMBER 1518

 

CHAPTER 1

 

The Resolutions — Repentance — Papacy — Leo X — Luther to his Bishop — Luther to the Pope — Luther to the Vicar-general — Rovera to the Elector — Sermon on Excommunication — Influence and Strength of Luther

 

CHAPTER 2

 

Diet at Augsburg — The Emperor to the Pope — The Elector to Rovera — Luther summoned to Rome — Luther’s Peace — Intercession of the University — Papal Brief — Luther’s Indignation — The Pope to the Elector

 

CHAPTER 3

 

 The Armorer Schwartzerd — His Wife — Philip — His Genius and Studies — The Bible — Call to Wittenberg — Melancthon’s Departure and Journey — Leipsic — Mistake — Luther’s Joy — Parallel — Revolution in Education — Study of Greek

 

CHAPTER 4

 

Sentiments of Luther and Staupitz — Summons to appear — Alarm and Courage — The Elector with the Legate — Departure for Augsburg — Sojourn at Weimar — Nuremberg — Arrival at Augsburg

 

CHAPTER 5

 

De Vio — His Character — Serra Longa — Preliminary Conversation — Visit of the Councillors — Return of Serra Longa — The Prior — Luther’s Discretion — Luther and Serra Longa — the Safe-conduct — Luther to Melancthon

 

CHAPTER 6

 

First Appearance — First Words — Conditions of Rome — Propositions to be retracted — Luther’s Answer — He withdraws — Impression on both Parties — Arrival of Staupitz

 

CHAPTER 7

 

Second Interview — Luther’s Declaration — The Legate’s Answer — His Volubility — Luther’s Request

 

CHAPTER 8

 

Second Interview — Treasure of Indulgences — Faith — Humble Petition — Legate’s Reply — Luther’s Answer — The Legate’s Anger — Luther withdraws — First Defection

 

CHAPTER 9

 

De Vio and Staupitz — Staupitz and Luther — Luther to Spalatin — Luther to Carlstadt — The Communion — Link and De Vio — Departure of Link and Staupitz — Luther to Cajetan — Cardinal’s Silence — Luther’s Farewell — Departure — Appeal to Rome

 

CHAPTER 10

 

Luther’s Flight — Admiration — Luther’s Desire — The Legate to the Elector — The Elector to the Legate — Prosperity of the University

 

CHAPTER 11

 

Thoughts on Departure — Farewell to the Church — Critical Moment — Deliverance — Luther’s Courage — Dissatisfaction at Rome — Bull — Appeal to a Council

 

VOLUME SECOND

 

BOOK 5 THE LEIPSIC DISPUTATION. 1519.

 

CHAPTER 1

 

Luther’s Danger — God preserves Luther — The Pope sends a Chamberlain — The Legate’s Journey — Roman Briefs — Circumstances favorable to the Reform — Miltitz with Spalatin — Tetzel’s Alarm — Miltitz’s Flattery — Demands a Retraction — Luther refuses, but offers to keep Silence — Agreement between Luther and the Nuncio — The Legate’s Kiss — Tetzel reproached by the Legate — Luther to the Pope — Nature of the Reformation — Luther opposes Separation — De Vio and Miltitz at Treves — Luther’s Cause extends over various Countries — Luther’s Writings begin the Reformation

 

CHAPTER 2

 

Pause in Germany — Eck revives the Contest — Disputation between Eck and Carlstadt — Question of the Pope — Luther replies — Fears of Luther’s Friends — Luther’s Courage — The Truth triumphs unaided — Refusal of Duke George — Gaiety of Mosellanus — Fears of Erasmus

 

CHAPTER 3

 

Arrival of Eck and of the Wittenbergers — Amsdorff — The Students — Carlstadt’s Accident — Placard — Eck and Luther — The Pleissenburg — Judges proposed — Luther objects — He consents at last

 

CHAPTER 4

 

Opening of the Disputation — Speech of Mosellanus — Veni, Sancte Spiritus — Portraits of Luther and Carlstadt — Doctor Eck — Carlstadt’s Books — Merit of Congruity — Natural Powers — Scholastic Distinction — Point at which Rome and the Reformation diverge — Liberty given to Man by Grace — Carlstadt’s Notes — Clamor of the Spectators — Melancthon during the Disputation — His Opinion — Eck’s Manoeuvers — Luther Preaches — Citizens of Leipsic — Quarrels between the Students and Doctors

 

CHAPTER 5

 

The Hierarchy and Rationalism — The Two Peasants’ Sons — Eck and Luther begin — The Head of the Church — Primacy of Rome — Equality of Bishops — Peter the Foundation-stone — Christ the Corner-stone — Eck insinuates that Luther is a Hussite — Luther on the Doctrine of Huss — Agitation among the Hearers — The Word alone — The Court-fool — Luther at Mass — Saying of the Duke — Purgatory — Close of the Discussion

 

CHAPTER 6

 

Interest felt by the Laity — Luther’s Opinion — Confession and Boasts of Doctor Eck — Effects of the Disputation — Poliander — Cellarius — The Young Prince of Anhalt — The Students of Leipsic — Cruciger — Melancthon’s Call — Luther’s Emancipation

 

CHAPTER 7

 

Eck attacks Melancthon — Melancthon’s Defense — Interpretation of Holy Scripture — Luther’s Firmness — The Bohemian Brothers — Emser — Staupitz

 

CHAPTER 8

 

The Epistle to the Galatians — Christ for us — Blindness of Luther’s Opponents — Earliest Ideas on the Lord’s Supper — Is the Sacrament without Faith sufficient? — Luther a Bohemian — Eck attacked — Eck goes to Rome

 

BOOK 6 THE PAPAL BULL — 1520.

 

CHAPTER 1

 

Character of Maximilian — Candidates for the Empire — Charles — Francis I — Disposition of the Germans — The Crown offered to Frederick — Charles elected Emperor

 

CHAPTER 2

 

Luther’s Letter to the Emperor — His Danger — Frederick’s Instructions to his Envoy at Rome — Luther’s Sentiments — Melancthon’s Fears — The German Nobles favor the Reformation — Schaumburg — Sickingen — Ulrich of Hutten — Luther’s Confidence — Erasmus defends Luther — Abstemius — Hedio — Luther becomes more free — Faith the Source of Works — What gives Faith? — Luther judging his own Writings

 

CHAPTER 3

 

The Papacy attacked — Appeal to the Nobility — The three Walls — All Christians are Priests — The Magistrate should chastise the Clergy — Roman Corruptions — Ruin of Italy — Dangers of Germany — The Pope — The Legates — The Monks — Marriage of Priests — Celibacy — Festivals — The Bohemians — Charity — The Universities — The Empire — The Emperor should retake Rome — Unpublished Book — Luther’s Moderation — Success of the Address

 

CHAPTER 4

 

Preparations at Rome — Motives for Papal Resistance — Eck at Rome — The King of Crowns — Eck prevails — The Pope is the World — God brings about the Separation — A Swiss Priest pleads for Luther — The Roman Consistory — Exordium of the Bull — Luther condemned

 

CHAPTER 5

 

Wittenberg — Melancthon — His Marriage — Catherine — Domestic Life — Benevolence — Good Humor — Christ and Antiquity — Labor — Love of Letters — His Mother — Revolt of the Students

 

CHAPTER 6

 

The Gospel in Italy — Sermon on the Mass — Babylonish Captivity of the Church — Baptism — Abolition of other Vows — Progress of Reform

 

CHAPTER 7

 

Fresh Negotiations — The Augustines at Eisleben — Miltitz — Deputation to Luther — Miltitz and the Elector — Conference at Lichtemberg — Luther’s Letter to the Pope — Book presented to the Pope — Union of Christ with the Believer — Liberty and Bondage

 

CHAPTER 8

 

The Bull in Germany — Eck’s Reception — The Bull at Wittenberg — Zwingle’s Intervention

 

CHAPTER 9

 

Luther’s Appeal to God — His Opinion of the Bull — A Neutral Family — Luther on the Bull — Against the Bull of Antichrist — The Pope forbids Faith — Effects of the Bull — The Burning Pile of Louvain

 

CHAPTER 10

 

Decisive Step of the Reformer — Luther’s Appeal to a General Council — Close Combat — The Bull burnt by Luther — Meaning of this daring Act — Luther in the Academy — Luther against the Pope — New Work by Melancthon — How Luther encourages his Friends — Progress of the Struggle — Melancthon’s Opinions on the Weak-hearted — Luther’s Treatise on the Bible — Doctrine of Grace — Luther’s Recantation

 

CHAPTER 11

 

Coronation of Charles the Fifth — The Nuncio Aleander — Shall Luther’s Books be burnt? — Aleander and the Emperor — The Nuncios and the Elector — Duke John’s Son in behalf of Luther — Luther’s Calmness — The Elector protects Luther — Reply of the Nuncios — Erasmus at Cologne — Erasmus at the Elector’s — Declaration of Erasmus — Advice of Erasmus — System of Charles V

 

CHAPTER 12

 

Luther on Confession — Real Absolution — Antichrist — Luther’s Popularity — Satires — Ulrich of Hutten — Lucas Cranach — The Carnival at Wittenberg — Staupitz intimidated — Luther’s Labors — His Humility — Progress of the Reformation

 

BOOK 7 THE DIET OF WORMS. 1521, JANUARY TO MAY

 

CHAPTER 1

 

Victories of the Word of God — The Diet of Worms — Policy of Rome — Difficulties — Charles demands Luther — The Elector to Charles V — State of Feeling — Alarm of Aleander — The Elector departs without Luther — Aleander arouses Rome — Excommunication of Pope and Communion with Christ — Fulminations of the Bull — Luther’s Motives in the Reformation

 

CHAPTER 2

 

A Foreign Prince — Council of Politicians — Conference between the Confessor and the Chancellor — Inutility of these Manoeuvers — Aleander’s Activity — Luther’s Words — Charles yields to the Pope

 

CHAPTER 3

 

Aleander introduced to the Diet — Aleander’s Speech — Luther is accused — Rome is justified — Appeal to Charles against Luther — Effect of the Nuncio’s Speech

 

CHAPTER 4

 

Sentiments of the Princes — Speech of Duke George — Character of the Reformation — One Hundred and One Grievances — Charles gives Way — Aleander’s Stratagems — The Grandees of Spain — Peace of Luther — Death and no Retraction

 

CHAPTER 5

 

Shall Luther have a Safe-conduct — The Safe-conduct — Will Luther come — Holy Thursday at Rome — The Pope and Luther

 

CHAPTER 6

 

Luther’s Courage — Bugenhagen at Wittenberg — Persecutions in Pomerania — Melancthon desires to accompany Luther — Amsdorff, Schurff, and Suaven — Hutten to Charles V

 

CHAPTER 7

 

Departure for the Diet of Worms — Luther’s Farewell — His Condemnation is posted up — Cavalcade near Erfurth — Meeting between Jonas and Luther — Luther in his former Convent — Luther preaches at Erfurth — Incident — Faith and Works — Concourse of People and Luther’s Courage — Luther’s Letter to Spalatin — Stay at Frankfort — Fears at Worms — Plan of the Imperialists — Luther’s Firmness

 

CHAPTER 8

 

Entry into Worms — Death-Song — Charles’s Council — Capito and the Temporizers — Luther’s numerous Visiters — Citation — Hutten to Luther — Luther proceeds to the Diet — Saying of Freundsberg — Imposing Assembly — The Chancellor’s Speech — Luther’s Reply — His Discretion — Saying of Charles V — Alarm — Triumph — Luther’s Firmness — Violence of the Spaniards — Advice — Luther’s Struggles and Prayer — Strength of the Reformation — His Vow to the Scriptures — The Court of the Diet — Luther’s Speech — Three Classes of Writings — He requires Proof of his Errors — Serious Warnings — He repeats his Speech in Latin — Here I stand; I can say no more — The Weakness of God stronger than Man — A new Attempt — Victory

 

CHAPTER 9

 

Tumult and Calmness — The Flagon of Duke Eric — The Elector and Spalatin — The Emperor’s Message — Proposal to violate the Safeconduct — Violent Opposition — Enthusiasm in Favor of Luther — Language of Conciliation — Fears of the Elector — Luther’s numerous Visiters — Philip of Hesse

 

CHAPTER 10

 

Conference with the Archbishop of Treves — Wehe’s Exhortation to Luther — Luther’s Replies — Private Conversation — Visit of Cochloeus — Supper at the Archbishop’s — Conference at the Hotel of the Knights of Rhodes — A Council proposed — Luther’s last Interview with the Archbishop — Visit to a sick Friend — Luther receives Orders to leave Worms — Luther’s Departure

 

CHAPTER 11

 

The Conflict at Worms — Luther’s Letter to Cranach — Luther’s Letter to Charles V — Luther with the Abbot of Hirschfeldt — The Parish Priest of Eisenach — Several Princes leave the Diet — Charles signs Luther’s Condemnation — The Edict of Worms — Luther with his Parents — Luther attacked and carried away — The Ways of God — The Wartburg — Luther a Prisoner

 

BOOK 8 THE SWISS. 1484—1522.

 

CHAPTER 1

 

Movement in Switzerland — Source of the Reformation — Its democratic Character — Foreign Service — Morality — The Tockenburg — A Chalet on the Alps — A Family of Shepherds — Young Ulrich

 

CHAPTER 2

 

Ulrich at Wesen and Basle — Ulrich at Berne — The Dominican Convent — Jetzer — The Apparitions — Passion of the Lay-brother — Imposture — Discovery and Punishment — Zwingle at Vienna and Basle — Music at Basle — Wittembach proclaims the Gospel — Leo Juda — The Priest of Glaris

 

CHAPTER 3

 

Fondness for War — Schinner — Pension from the Pope — The Labyrinth — Zwingle in Italy — Principle of Reform — Zwingle and Luther — Zwingle and Erasmus — Zwingle and the ancient Classics — Paris and Glaris

 

CHAPTER 4

 

Zwingle to Erasmus — Oswald Myconius — The Robbers — Oecolampadius — Zwingle at Marignan — Zwingle and Italy — Zwingle’s Method — Commencement of the Reform — Discovery — Passage from one World to the other

 

CHAPTER 5

 

Our Lady of Einsidlen — Zwingle’s Call — The Abbot — Geroldsek — A learned Society — The Bible copied — Zwingle and Superstition — First Opposition to Error — Sensation — Hedio — Zwingle and the Legates — The Honors of Rome — The Bishop of Constance — Samson and the Indulgences — Stapfer — Zwingle’s Charity — His Friends

 

CHAPTER 6

 

The Canons’ College — Election to the Cathedral — Fable — Accusations — Zwingle’s Confession — Development of God’s Purposes — Farewell to Einsidlen — Arrival at Zurich — Zwingle’s bold Declaration — First Sermons — Their Effect — Opposition — Zwingle’s Character — Taste for Music — Arrangement of the Day — The Bookhawker

 

CHAPTER 7

 

The Indulgences — Samson at Berne and at Baden — The Dean of Bremgarten Young Henry Bullinger — Samson and the Dean — Zwingle’s internal Struggles — Zwingle opposes the Indulgences — Samson is sent back

 

CHAPTER 8

 

Zwingle’s Toils and Fatigue — The Baths of Pfeffers — The Moment of God — The Great Death — Zwingle attacked by the Plague — His Adversaries — His Friends — Convalescence — General Joy — Effects of the Pestilence — Myconius at Lucerne — Oswald encourages Zwingle — Zwingle at Basle — Capito invited to Mentz — Hedio at Basle — The Unnatural Soa — Preparations for the Struggle

 

CHAPTER 9

 

The Two Reformers — The Fall of Man — Expiation of the Man-God — No Merit in Works — Objections refuted — Power of Love for Christ — Election — Christ the sole Master — Effects of this Preaching — Dejection and Courage — First Act of the Magistrate — Church and State — Attacks — Galster

 

CHAPTER 10

 

A new Combatant — The Reformer of Berne — Zwingle encourages Haller — The Gospel at Lucerne — Oswald persecuted — Zwingle’s Preaching — Henry Bullinger and Gerold of Knonau — Rubli at Basle — The Chaplain of the Hospital — War in Italy — Zwingle protests against the Capitulations

 

CHAPTER 11

 

Zwingle opposes Human Traditions — Commotion during Lent — Truth triumphs amidst

Opposition — The Bishop’s Deputies — Accusation before the Clergy and the Council — Appeal to the Great Council — The Coadjutor and Zwingle — Zwingle’s Reply — Decree of the Great Council — Posture of Affairs — Hoffman’s Attack

 

CHAPTER 12

 

Mourning and Joy in Germany — Plots against Zwingle — The Bishop’s Mandate — Archeteles — The Bishop’s Appeal to the Diet — Injunction against attacking the Monks — Zwingle’s Declaration — The Nuns of Oetenbach — Zwingle’s Address to Schwytz

 

CHAPTER 13

 

A French Monk — He teaches in Switzerland — Dispute between Zwingle and the Monk — Discourse of the Commander of the Johannites — The Carnival at Berne — The Eaters of the Dead — The Skull of At Anne-Appenzel — The Grisons — Murder and Adultery — Zwingle’s Marriage

 

CHAPTER 14

 

How the Truth triumphs — Meeting at Einsidlen — Petition to the Bishop and Confederates — The Men of Einsidlen separate — Scene in a Convent — Dinner with Myconius — The Strength of the Reformers — Effect of the Petitions to Lucerne — The Council of the Diet — Haller at the Town-hall — Friburg — Oswald’s Destitution — Zwingle consoles him — Oswald quits Lucerne — The Diet’s first Act of Severity — Consternation of Zwingle’s Brothers — Zwingle’s Resolution — The Future — Zwingle’s Prayer

 

VOLUME THIRD

 

BOOK 9 FIRST REFORMS. 1521 AND 1522.

 

Preface to Volume Third

 

CHAPTER 1

 

Progress of the Reformation — New Period — Usefulness of Luther’s Captivity in the Wartburg — Agitation in Germany — Melancthon and Luther — Enthusiasm Page

 

CHAPTER 2

 

Luther in the Wartburg — Object of his Captivity — Anxiety — Sickness — Luther’s Labors — On Confession — Reply to Latomus — His daily Walks

 

CHAPTER 3

 

Commencement of the Reform — Marriage of Feldkirchen — The Marriage of Monks — Theses — Tract against Monachism — Luther no longer a Monk

 

CHAPTER 4

 

Archbishop Albert — The Idol of Halle — Luther’s Indignation — Alarm of the Court — Luther’s Letter to the Archbishop — Albert’s Reply — Joachim of Brandenburg

 

CHAPTER 5

 

Translation of the Bible — Wants of the Church — Principles of the Reformation — Temptations of the Devil — Luther’s Works condemned by the Sorbonne — Melancthon’s Reply — Luther Visits Wittenberg

 

CHAPTER 6

 

Fresh Reforms — Gabriel Zwilling on the Mass — The University — Melancthon’s Propositions — The Elector — Monastic Institutions attacked — Emancipation of the Monks — Disturbances — Chapter of the Augustine Monks — Carlstadt and the Mass — First Celebration of the Lord’s Supper — Importance of the Mass in the Romish System

 

CHAPTER 7

 

False Reform — The New Prophets — The Prophets at Wittenberg — Melancthon — The Elector — Luther — Carlstadt and the Images — Disturbances — Luther is called for — He does not hesitate — Dangers

 

CHAPTER 8

 

Departure from the Wartburg — New Position — Luther and Primitive Catholicism — Meeting at the Black Bear — Luther’s Letter to the Elector — Return to Wittenberg — Sermon at Wittenberg — Charity — The Word — How the Reformation was brought about — Faith in Christ — Its Effects — Didymus — Carlstadt — The Prophets — Interview with Luther — End of the Struggle

 

CHAPTER 9

 

Translation of the New Testament — Faith and Scripture — Opposition — Importance of this Publication — Necessity for a systematic Arrangement — Melancthon’s Loci Communes — Original Sin — Salvation — Free Will — Effects of the Loci Communes

 

CHAPTER 10

 

Opposition — Henry VIII — Wolsey — The Queen — Fisher — Thomas More — Luther’s Books burnt — Henry’s Attack on Luther — Presented to the Pope — Its Effect on Luther — Energy and Violence — Luther’s Reply — Answer by the Bishop of Rochester — Reply of Thomas More — Henry’s Proceedings

 

CHAPTER 11

 

General Movement — The Monks — How the Reformation was carried on — Unlearned Believer — The Old and the New Doctors — Printing and Literature — Bookselling and Colportage

 

CHAPTER 12

 

Luther at Zwickau — The Castle of Freyberg — Worms — Frankfort — Universal Movement — Wittenberg the Center of the Reformation — Luther’s Sentiments

 

BOOK 10 AGITATION, REVERSES, AND PROGRESS. 1522—1526.

 

CHAPTER 1

 

Political Element — Want of Enthusiasm at Rome — Siege of Pampeluna — Courage of Ignatius — Transition — Luther and Loyola — Visions — Two Principles

 

CHAPTER 2

 

Victory of the Pope — Death of Leo X — The Oratory of Divine Love — Adrian VI — Plan of Reform — Opposition

 

CHAPTER 3

 

Diet of Nuremberg — Soliman’s Invasion — The Nuncio calls for Luther’s Death — The Nuremberg Preachers — Promise of Reform — Grievances of the Nation — Decree of the Diet — Fulminating Letter of the Pope — Luther’s Advice

 

CHAPTER 4

 

Persecution — Exertions of Duke George — The Convent at Antwerp — Miltenberg — The Three Monks of Antwerp — The Scaffold — The Martyrs of Brussels

 

CHAPTER 5

 

The New Pope, Clement VII — The Legate Campeggio — Diet of Nuremberg — Demand of the Legate — Reply of the Diet — A Secular Council projected — Alarm and Exertions of the Pope — Bavaria — League of Ratisbon — Severity and Reforms — Political Schism — Opposition — Intrigues of Rome — Decree of Burgos — Rupture

 

CHAPTER 6

 

Persecution — Gaspard Tauber — A Bookseller — Cruelties in Wurtemberg, Salzburg, and Bavaria — Pomerania — Henry of Zuphten

 

CHAPTER 7

 

Divisions — The Lord’s Supper — Two Extremes — Hoen’s Discovery — Carlstadt — Luther — Mysticism of the enthusiasts — Carlstadt at Orlamund — Luther’s Mission — Interview at Table — The Conference of Orlamund — Carlstadt banished

 

CHAPTER 8

 

Progress — Resistance against the Ratisbon Leaguers — Meeting between Philip of Hesse and Melancthon — The Landgrave converted to the Gospel — The Palatinate — Luneburg — Holstein — The Grand- Master at Wittenberg

 

CHAPTER 9

 

Reforms — All Saints Church — Fall of the Mass — Learning — Christian Schools — Learning extended to the Laity — The Arts — Moral Religion — Esthetical Religion — Music — Poetry — Painting

 

CHAPTER 10

 

Political Ferment — Luther against Rebellion — Thomas Munzer — Agitation — The Black Forest — The twelve Articles — Luther’s Opinion — Helfenstein — March of the Peasants — March of the Imperial Army — Defeat of the Peasants — Cruelty of the Princes

 

CHAPTER 11

 

Munzer at Mulhausen — Appeal to the People — March of the Princes — End of the Revolt — Influence of the Reformers — Sufferings — Changes — Two Results

 

CHAPTER 12

 

Death of the Elector Frederick — The Prince and the Reformer — Roman-catholic Alliance — Plans of Charles the Fifth — Dangers

 

CHAPTER 13

 

The Nuns of Nimptsch — Luther’s Sentiments — The Convent dissolved — Luther’s Marriage — Domestic Happiness

 

CHAPTER 14

 

The Landgrave — The Elector — Prussia — Reformation — Secularization — The Archbishop of Mentz — Conference at Friedwalt — Diet — Alliance of Torgau — Resistance of the Reformers — Alliance of Magdeburg — The Catholics redouble their Exertions — The Emperor’s Marriage — Threatening Letters — The two Parties

 

BOOK 11 DIVISIONS. SWITZERLAND — GERMANY. 1523—1527.

 

CHAPTER 1

 

Unity in Diversity — Primitive Fidelity and Liberty — Formation of Romish Unity — Leo Juda and the Monk — Zwingle’s Theses — The Disputation of January

 

CHAPTER 2

 

Papal Temptations — Progress of the Reformation — The Idol at Stadelhofen — Sacrilege — The Ornaments of the Saints

 

CHAPTER 3

 

The Disputation of October — Zwingle on the Church — The Church — Commencement of Presbyterianism — Discussion on the Mass — Enthusiasts — The Language of Discretion — Victory — A Characteristic of the Swiss Reformation — Moderation — Oswald Myconius at Zurich — Revival of Literature — Thomas Plater of the Valais

 

CHAPTER 4

 

Diet of Lucerne — Hottinger arrested — His Death — Deputation from the Diet to Zurich — Abolition of religious Processions — Abolition of Images — The Two Reformations — Appeal to the People

 

CHAPTER 5

 

New Opposition — Abduction of Oexlin — The Family of the Wirths — The Populace at the Convent of Ittingen — The Diet of Zug — The Wirths apprehended and given up to the Diet — Their Condemnation

 

CHAPTER 6

 

Abolition of the Mass — Zwingle’s Dream — Celebration of the Lord’s Supper — Fraternal Charity — Original Sin — The Oligarchs opposed to the Reform — Various Attacks

 

CHAPTER 7

 

Berne — The Provost Watteville — First Successes of the Reformed Doctrines — Haller at the Convent — Accusation and Deliverance — The Monastery of Konigsfeldt — Margaret Watteville to Zwingle — The Convent opened — Two Champions — Clara May and the Provost Watteville

 

CHAPTER 8

 

Basle — Oecolampadius — He visits Augsburg — Enters a Convent — Retires to Sickingen’s Castle — Returns to Basle — Ulrich Hutten — His Plans — Last Effort of Chivalry — Hutten dies at Ufnau

 

CHAPTER 9

 

Erasmus and Luther — Vacillations of Erasmus — Luther to Erasmus — Erasmus’s Treatise against Luther on Free Will — Three Opinions — Effect upon Luther — Luther on Free Will — The Jansenists and the Reformers — Homage to Erasmus — His Anger — The Three Days

 

CHAPTER 10

 

The Three Adversaries — Source of Truth — Grebel — the fanatics and Zwingle — Constitution of the Church — Prison — The Prophet Blaurock — Fanaticism at Saint Gall — Schucker and Family — Discussion at Zurich — The Limits of the Reformation — Punishment of the fanatics

 

CHAPTER 11

 

Progression and Immobility — Zwingle and Luther — Luther’s Return to Scholasticism — Respect for Tradition — Occam — Contrary Tendency in Zwingle — Beginning of the Controversy — Oecolampadius and the Swabian Syngramma — Strasburg mediates

 

CHAPTER 12

 

The Tockenburg — An Assembly of the People — Reformation — The Grisons — Disputation at Ilantz — Results — Reformation at Zurich

 

CHAPTER 13

 

The Oligarchs — Bernese Mandate of in Favor of the Papacy — Discussion at Baden — Regulations of the Discussion — Riches and Poverty — Eck and Oecolampadius — Discussion — Zwingle’s Share in the Discussion — Vaunts of the Romanists — Abusive Language of a Monk — Close of the Disputation

 

CHAPTER 14

 

Consequences at Basle, Berne, Saint Gall, and other Places — Diet at Zurich — The small Cantons — Threats against Berne — Foreign Support

 

BOOK 12 THE FRENCH. 1500—1526.

 

CHAPTER 1

 

Universality of Christianity — Enemies of the Reform in France — Heresy and Persecution in Dauphiny — A country Mansion — The Farel Family — Pilgrimage to the Holy Cross — Immorality and Superstition — William desires to become a Student

 

CHAPTER 2

 

Louis XII and the Assembly of Tours — Francis and Margaret — Learned Men — Lefevre — His Courses at the University — Meeting between Lefevre and Farel — Farel’s Hesitation and Researches — First Awakening — Lefevre’s Prophecy — Teaches Justification by Faith — Objections — Disorder of the Colleges — Effects on Farel — Election — Sanctification of Life

 

CHAPTER 3

 

Farel and the Saints — The University — Farel’s Conversion — Farel and Luther — Other Disciples — Date of the Reform in France — Spontaneous Rise of the different Reforms — Which was the first? — Lefevre’s Place

 

CHAPTER 4

 

Character of Francis I — Commencement of Modern Times — Liberty and Obedience — Margaret of Valois — The Court — Briconnet, Count of Montbrun — Lefevre commends him to the Bible — Francis I and “his Children” — The Gospel brought to Margaret — Conversion — Adoration — Margaret’s Character

 

CHAPTER 5

 

Enemies of the Reformation — Louisa — Duprat — Concordat of Bologna — Opposition of the Parliament and the University — The Sorbonne — Beda — His Character — His Tyranny — Berquin, the most learned of the Nobility — The Intriguers of the Sorbonne — Heresy of the three Magdalens — Luther condemned at Paris — Address of the Sorbonne to the King — Lefevre quits Paris for Meaux

 

CHAPTER 6

 

Briconnet visits his Diocese — Reform — The Doctors persecuted in Paris — Philiberta of Savoy — Correspondence between Margaret and Briconnet

 

CHAPTER 7

 

Beginning of the Church at Meaux — The Scriptures in French — The Artisans and the Bishop — Evangelical Harvest — The Epistles of St Paul sent to the King — Lefevre and Roma — The Monks before the Bishop — The Monks before the Parliament — Briconnet gives way

 

CHAPTER 8

 

Lefevre and Farel persecuted — Difference between the Lutheran and Reformed Churches — Leclerc posts up his Placards — Leclerc branded — Berquin’s Zeal — Berquin before the Parliament — Rescued by Francis I — Mazurier’s Apostacy — Fall and Remorse of Pavanne — Metz — Chatelain — Peter Toussaint becomes attentive — Leclerc breaks the Images — Leclerc’s Condemnation and Torture — Martyrdom of Chatelain — Flight

 

CHAPTER 9

 

Farel and his Brothers — Farel expelled from Gap — He preaches in the Fields — The Knight Anemond of Coct — The Minorito — Anemond quits France — Luther to the Duke of Savoy — Farel quits France

 

CHAPTER 10

 

Catholicity of the Reformation — Friendship between Farel and Oecolampadius — Farel and Erasmus — Altercation — Farel demands a Disputation — Theses — Scripture and Faith — Discussion

 

CHAPTER 11

 

New Campaign — Farel’s Call to the Ministry — An Outpost — Lyons — Sebville at Grenoble — Conventicles — Preaching at Lyons — Maigret in Prison — Margaret intimidated

 

CHAPTER 12

 

The French at Basle — Encouragement of the Swiss — Fears of Discord — Translating and Printing at Basle — Bibles and Tracts disseminated in France

 

CHAPTER 13

 

Progress at Montbellard — Resistance and Commotion — Toussaint leaves Oecolampadius — The Image of Saint Anthony — Death of Anemond — Strasburg — Lambert’s Letter to Francis I — Successive Defeats

 

CHAPTER 14

 

Francis made Prisoner at Pavia — Reaction against the Reformation — Margaret’s Anxiety for her Brother — Louisa consults the Sorbonne — Commission against the Heretics — Briconnet brought to Trial — Appeal to the Parliament — Fall — Recantation — Lefevre accused — Condemnation and Flight — Lefevre at Strasburg — Louis Berquin imprisoned — Erasmus attacked — Schuch at Nancy — His Martyrdom — Struggle with Caroli — Sorrow of Pavanne — His Martyrdom — A Christian Hermit — Concourse at Notre Dame

 

CHAPTER 15

 

A Student of Noyon — Character of young Calvin — Early Education — Consecrated to Theology — The Bishop gives him the Tonsure — He leaves Noyon on Account of the Plague — The two Calvins — Slanders — The Reformation creates new Languages — Persecution and Terror — Toussaint put in Prison — The Persecution more furious — Death of Du Blet, Moulin, and Papillon — God saves the Church — Margaret’s Project — Her Departure for Spai

 

VOLUME FOURTH

 

BOOK 13 THE PROTEST AND THE CONFERENCE. 1526—1529.

 

Preface to Volume Four.

CHAPTER 1

 

Twofold Movement of Reform — Reform the Work of God — First Diet of Spires — Palladium of Reform — Firmness of the Reformers — Proceedings of the Diet — Report of the Commissioners — The Papacy painted and described by Luther — The Destruction of Jerusalem — Instructions of Seville — Change of Policy — Holy League — Religious Liberty proposed — Crisis of the Reformation Page

 

CHAPTER 2

 

Italian War — The Emperor’s Manifesto — March on Rome — Revolt of the Troops — The Sack of Rome — German Humors — Violence of the Spaniards — Clement VII capitulates

 

CHAPTER 3

 

Profitable Calm — Constitution of the Church — Philip of Hesse — The Monk of Marburg — Lambert’s Paradoxes — Friar Boniface — Disputation at Homburg — Triumph of the Gospel in Hesse — Constitution of the Church — Bishops — Synods — Two Elements of the Church — Luther on the Ministry — Organization of the Church — Luther’s Contradictions on State Interference — Luther to the Elector — German Mass — Melancthon’s Instructions — Disaffection — Visitation of the Reformed Churches — Results — The Reformation advances — Elizabeth of Brandenburg

 

CHAPTER 4

 

Edict of Ofen — Persecutions — Winkler, Carpenter, and Keyser — Alarm in Germany — Pack’s Forgery — League of the Reformed Princes — Advice of the Reformers — Luther’s Pacific Counsel — Surprise of the Papist Princes — Pack’s Scheme not improbable — Vigor of the Reformation

 

CHAPTER 5

 

Alliance between Charles and Clement VII — Omens — Hostility of the Papists — Arbitrary Proposition of Charles — Resolutions of the Diet — The Reformation in Danger — Decision of the Princes — Violence of Ferdinand — The Schism completed

 

CHAPTER 6

 

The Protest — Principles of the Protest — Supremacy of the Gospel — Christian Union — Ferdinand rejects the Protest — Attempt at Conciliation — Exultation of the Papists — Evangelical Appeal — Christian Unity a Reality — Dangers of the Protestants — The Protestants leave Spires — The Princes, the true Reformers — Germany and Reform

 

CHAPTER 7

 

Union necessary to Reform — Luther’s Doctrine on the Lord’s Supper — A Lutheran Warning — Proposed Conference at Marburg — Melancthon and Zwingle — Zwingle leaves Zurich — Rumors in Zurich — The Reformers at Marburg — Carlstadt’s Petition — Preliminary Discussions — Holy Ghost — Original Sin — Baptism — Luther, Melancthon, and Zwingle — Opening of the Conference — The Prayer of the Church — Hoc est Corpus Meum — Syllogism of Oecolampadius — The Flesh profiteth nothing — Lambert convinced — Luther’s Old Song — Agitation in the Conference — Arrival of new Deputies — Christ’s Humanity finite — Mathematics and popery — Testimony of the Fathers — Testimony of Augustine — Argument of the Velvet Cover — End of the Conference — The Landgrave mediates — Necessity of Union — Luther rejects Zwingle’s Hand — Sectarian Spirit of the Germans — Bucer’s Dilemma — Christian Charity prevails — Luther’s Report — Unity of Doctrine — Unity in Diversity — Signatures — Two Extremes — Three Views — Germ of Popery — Departure — Luther’s Dejection — Turks before Vienna — Luther’s Battle-sermon and Agony — Luther’s Firmness — Victory — Exasperation of the Papists — Threatening Prospects

 

BOOK 14 THE AUGSBURG CONFESSION. 1530.

 

CHAPTER 1

 

Two striking Lessons — Charles V in Italy — The German Envoys — Their Boldness — The Landgrave’s Present — The Envoys under Arrest — Their Release and Departure — Meeting of Charles and Clement — Gattinara’s Proposition — Clement’s Arms — War imminent — Luther’s Objections — The Savior is coming — Charles’s conciliatory Language — The Emperor’s Motives

 

CHAPTER 2

 

The Coronation — The Emperor made a Deacon — The Romish Church and the State — Alarm of the Protestants — Luther advocates Passive Resistance — Bruck’s noble Advice — Articles of Faith prepared — Luther’s Strong Tower — Luther at Coburg — Charles at Innspruck — Two Parties at Court — Gattinara — The King of Denmark won over by Charles — Piety of the Elector — Wiles of the Romanists

 

CHAPTER 3

 

Augsburg — The Gospel preached — The Emperor’s Message — The Sermons prohibited — Firmness of the Elector — The Elector’s Reply — Preparation of the Confession — Luther’s Sinai — His Son and his Father — Luther’s Merriment — Luther’s Diet at Coburg — Saxony, a Paradise below — To the Bishops — Travail of the Church — Charles — The Pope’s Letter — Melancthon on Fasting — The Church, the Judge — The Landgrave’s catholic Spirit

 

CHAPTER 4

 

Agitation in Augsburg — Violence of the Imperialists — Charles at Munich — Charles’s Arrival — The Nuncio’s Blessing — The Imperial Procession — Charles’s Appearance — Enters Augsburg — Te Deum — The Benediction — Charles desires the Sermons to be discontinued — Brandenburg offers his Head — The Emperor’s Request for Corpus Christi — Refusal of the Princes — Agitation of Charles — The Princes oppose Tradition — Procession of Corpus Christi — Exasperation of Charles

 

CHAPTER 5

 

The Sermons prohibited — Compromise proposed and accepted — The Herald — Curiosity of the Citizens — The new Preachers — The Medley of Popery — Luther encourages the Princes — Veni Spiritus — Mass of the Holy Ghost — The Sermon — Opening of the Diet — The Elector’s Prayer — Insidious Plan of the Romanists — Valdez and Melancthon — No public Discussion — Evangelical Firmness prevails

 

CHAPTER 6

 

The Elector’s Zeal — The Signing of the Confession — Courage of the Princes — Melancthon’s Weakness — The Legate’s Speech — Delays — The Confession in Danger — The Protestants are firm — Melancthon’s Despondency — Luther’s Prayer and Anxiety — Luther’s Texts — His Letter to Melancthon — Faith

 

CHAPTER 7

 

The 25th June 1530 — The Palatine Chapel — Recollections and Contrast — The Confession — Prologue — Justification — The Church — Free Will and Works — Faith — Interest of the Hearers — The Princes become Preachers — The Confession — Abuses — Church and State — The two Governments — Epilogue — Argumentation — Prudence — Church and State — The Sword — Moderate Tone of the Confession — Its Defects — A New Baptism

 

CHAPTER 8

 

Effect on the Romanists — Luther demands religious Liberty — His dominant Idea — Song of Triumph — Ingenuous Confessions — Hopes of the Protestants — Failure of the Popish Intrigues — The Emperor’s Council — Violent Discussions — A Refutation proposed — Its Authors — Rome and the civil Power — Perils of the Confessors — Melancthon’s Minimum — The Emperor’s Sister — Melancthon’s Fall — Luther opposes Concession — The Legate repels Melancthon — The Pope’s Decision — Question — Melancthon’s School-matters — Answer

 

CHAPTER 9

 

The Refutation — Charles’s Dissatisfaction — Interview with the Princes — The Swiss at Augsburg — Tetrapolitan Confession — Zwingle’s Confession — Afflicting Divisions — The Elector’s Faith — His Peace — The Lion’s Skin — The Refutation — One Concession — Scripture and the Hierarchy — Imperial Commands — Interview between Melancthon and Campeggio — Policy of Charles — Stormy Meeting — Resolutions of the Consistory — The Prayers of the Church — Two Miracles — The Emperor’s Menace — The Princes’ Courage — The Mask — Negotiations — The Specters at Spires — Tumult in Augsburg

 

CHAPTER 10

 

Philip of Hesse — Temptation — Union resisted — The Landgrave’s Dissimulation — The Emperor’s Order to the Protestants — Brandenburg’s threatening Speeches — Resolution of Philip of Hesse — Flight from Augsburg — Discovery — Charles’s Emotion — Revolution in the Diet — Metamorphosis — Unusual Moderation — Peace! Peace!

 

CHAPTER 11

 

The Mixed Commission — The Three Points — Romish Dissimulation — Abuses — Concessions — The Main Question — Bishops and Pope conceded — Danger of Concession — Opposition to the pretended Concord — Luther’s opposing Letters — The Word above the Church — Melancthon’s Blindness — Papist Infatuation — A new Commission — Be Men and not Women — The Two Phantoms — Concessions — The Three Points — The great Antithesis — Failure of Conciliation — The Gordian Knot — A Council granted — Charles’s Summons — Menaces — Altercations — Peace or War — Romanism concedes — Protestantism resists — Luther recalls his Friends

 

CHAPTER 12

 

The Elector’s Preparatives and Indignation — Recess of Augsburg — Irritating Language — Apology of the Confession — Intimidation — Final Interview — Messages of Peace — Exasperation of the Papists — Restoration of Popery — Tumult in the Church — Union of the Churches — The Pope and the Emperor — Close of the Diet — Armaments — Attack on Geneva — Joy of the Evangelicals — Establishment of Protestantism

 

BOOK 15 SWITZERLAND — CONQUESTS. 1526 — 1530.

 

CHAPTER 1

 

Originality of the Swiss Reform — Change — Three Periods of Reform — Switzerland Romande — The two Movements in the Church — Aggressive Spirit — The Schoolmaster — Farel’s new Baptism — Mysticism and Scholasticism — A Door is opened — Opposition — Lausanne — Manners of the Clergy — Farel to Galeotto — Farel and the Monk — The Tribunal — The Monk cries for Pardon — Opposition of the Ormonds — A false Convert — Christian Unity

 

CHAPTER 2

 

State — Religion in Berne — Irresolution of Berne — Almanack of Heretics — Evangelical Majority — Haller — Zwingle’s Signal — The radicals in Berne — Victory of the Gospel — Papist Provocations — The City Companies — Proposed Disputation — Objections of the Forest Cantons — The Church, the Judge of Controversies — Unequal Contest — Zwingle — A Christian Band — The Cordeliers’ Church — Opening of the Conference — The sole Head — Unity of Error — A Priest converted at the Altar — St Vincent’s Day — The Butchers — A strange Argument — Papist Bitterness — Necessity of Reform — Zwingle’s Sermon — Visit of the King of Kings — Edict of Reform — Was the Reformation political?

 

CHAPTER 3

 

The Reform accepted by the People — Faith, Purity, and Charity — First Evangelical Communion — Bernese Proposition to the Diet — Cavern, and Head of Beatus — Threatening Storm from the Mountains — Revolt — Confusion in Berne — Unterwalden crosses the Brunig — Energy of Berne — Victory — Political Advantages

 

CHAPTER 4

 

Reformation of St Gall — Nuns of St Catherine — Reformation of Glaris, Berne, Appenzell, the Grisons, Schaffhausen, and the Rhine District — A Popish Miracle — Obstacles in Basle — Zeal of the Citizens — Oecolampadius marries — Witticism of Erasmus — First Action — Half- Measures — Petition of the Reformed

 

CHAPTER 5

 

Crisis in Basle — Half-measures rejected — Reformed Propositions — A Night of Terror — Idols broken in the Cathedral — The Hour of Madness — Idols broken in all the Churches — Reform legalized — Erasmus in Basle — A great Transformation — Revolution and Reformation

 

CHAPTER 6

 

Farel’s Commission — Farel at Lausanne and Morat — Neufchatel — Farel preaches at Serriere — Enters Neufchatel — Sermon — The Monks — Farel’s Preaching — Popery in Neufchatel — Canons and Monks unite — Farel at Morat and in the Vully — Reformation of the Bishopric of Basle — Farel again in Neufchatel — Placards — The Hospital Chapel — Civil Power invoked by the Romanists

 

CHAPTER 7

 

Valangin — Guillemette de Vergy — Farel goes to the Val de Ruz — The Mass interrupted — Farel dragged to the River — Farel in Prison — Apostles and Reformers compared — Farel preaching at Neufchatel — Installed in the Cathedral — A Whirlwind sweeps over the People — The Idols destroyed — Interposition of the Governor — Triumph of the Reformed

 

CHAPTER 8

 

The Romanists demand a Ballot — The Bernese in Favor of the Reform — Both Parties come to the Poll — The Prudhommes of Neufchatel — Proposed Delay — The Romanists grasp the Sword — The Voting — Majority for Reform — Protestantism perpetual — The Image of Saint John — A Miracle — Retreat of the Canons — Popery and the Gospel

 

CHAPTER 9

 

Reaction preparing — Failure of the Plot — Farel in Valangin and near the Lake — De Bely at Fontaine — Farel’s Sufferings — Marcourt at Valangin — Disgraceful Expedient — Vengeance — The Reform established — French Switzerland characterized — Gathering Tempest

 

BOOK 16 SWITZERLAND — CATASTROPHE. 1528 — 1531.

 

CHAPTER 1

 

Two great Lessons — Christian Warfare — Zwingle, Pastor, Statesman, and General — His noble Character — Persecutions — Swiss Catholics seek an Alliance with Austria — Great Dissatisfaction — Deputation to the Forest Cantons — Zwingle’s Proposal — Moderation of Berne — Keyser’s Martyrdom — Zwingle and War — Zwingle’s Error

 

CHAPTER 2

 

Free Preaching of the Gospel in Switzerland — Zwingle supports the common Bailiwicks — War — Zwingle joins the Army — The Zurich Army threatens Zug — The Landamman Aebli — Bernese Interposition — Zwingle’s Opposition — Swiss Cordiality — Order in the Zurich Camp — A Conference — Peace restored — Austrian Treaty torn — Zwingle’s Hymn — Nuns of Saint Catherine

 

CHAPTER 3

 

Conquests of Reform in Schaffhausen and Zurzack — Reform in Glaris — Today the Cowl, Tomorrow the Reverse — Italian Bailiwicks — The Monk of Como — Egidio’s Hope for Italy — Call of the Monk of Locarno — Hopes of reforming Italy — The Monks of Wettingen — Abbey of Saint Gall — Kilian Kouffi — Saint Gall recovers its Liberty — The Reform in Soleure — Miracle of Saint Ours — Popery triumphs — The Grisons invaded by the Spaniards — Address of the Ministers to the Romish Cantons — God’s Word the Means of Unity — Oecolampadius for spiritual Influence — Autonomy of the Church

 

CHAPTER 4

 

Zwingle and the Christian State — Zwingle’s double Part — Zwingle and Luther in Relation to Politics — Philip of Hesse and the Free Cities — Projected Union between Zwingle and Luther — Zwingle’s political Action — Project of Alliance against the Emperor — Zwingle advocates active Resistance — He destines the Imperial Crown for Philip — Faults of the Reformation — Embassy to Venice — Giddiness of the Reformation — Projected Alliance with France — Zwingle’s Plan of Alliance — Approaching Ruin — Slanders in the Five Cantons — Violence — Mysterious Paper — Berne and Basle vote for Peace — General Diet at Baden — Evangelical Diet at Zurich — Political Reformation of Switzerland — Activity of Zurich

 

CHAPTER 5

 

Diet of Arau — Helvetic Unity — Berne proposes to close the Markets — Opposition of Zurich — Proposition agreed to and published — Zwingle’s War Sermon — Blockade of the Waldstettes — No Bread, no Wine, no Salt — Indignation of the Forest Cantons — The Roads blockaded — Processions — Cry of Despair — France tries to conciliate — Diet at Bremgarten — Hope — The Cantons inflexible — The Strength of Zurich broken — Discontent — Zwingle’s false Position — Zwingle demands his Dismission — The Council remonstrate — He remains — Zwingle at Bremgarten — Zwingle’s Farewell to Bullinger — Zwingle’s Agony — The Forest Cantons reject all Conciliation — Frightful Omens — The Comet — Zwingle’s Tranquillity

 

CHAPTER 6

 

The Five Cantons decide for War — Deceitful Calm — Fatal Inactivity — Zurich forewarned — Banner of Lucerne planted — Manifesto — The Bailiwicks pillaged — The Monastery of Cappel — Letter — Infatuation of Zurich — New Warnings — The War begins — The Tocsin — A fearful Night — The War — Banner and Army of Zurich — Zwingle’s Departure — Zwingle’s Horse — Anna Zwingle

 

CHAPTER 7

 

The Scene of War — The Enemy at Zug — Declaration of War — Council — Army of the Forest Cantons appears — The first Gun fired — Zwingle’s Gravity and Sorrow — Zurich Army ascending the Albis — Halt and Council at the Beech Tree — They quicken their March — Jauch’s Reconnaissance — His Appeal — Ambuscade

 

CHAPTER 8

 

Unforeseen Change — The whole Army advances — Universal Disorder — The Banneret’s Death — The Banner in Danger — The Banner saved — Terrible Slaughter — Slaughter of the Pastors — Zwingle’s last Words — Barbarity of the Victors — The Furnace of Trial — Zwingle’s dying Moments — Day after the Battle — Homage and Outrage

 

CHAPTER 9

 

Consternation in Zurich — Violence of the Populace — Grief and Distress — Zwingle is dead! — Funeral Oration — Army of Zurich — Another Reverse on the Goubel — Inactivity of the Bernese — Hopes and Plan of Charles V — End of the War — Treaty of Peace

 

CHAPTER 10

 

Restoration of Popery at Bremgarten and Rapperschwyl — Priests and Monks everywhere — Sorrow of Oecolampadius — A tranquil Scene — 46 Peaceful Death of Oecolampadius — Henry Bullinger at Zurich — Contrition and Exultation — The great Lesson — Conclusion

 

VOLUME FIFTH

 

Preface to Volume Five

BOOK 17 ENGLAND BEFORE THE REFORMATION

 

CHAPTER 1

 

Introduction — Work of the Sixteenth Century — Unity and Diversity — Necessity of considering the entire Religious History of England — Establishment of Christianity in Great Britain — Formation of Ecclesiastical Catholicism in the Roman Empire — Spiritual Christianity received by Britain — Slavery and Conversion of Succat — His Mission to Ireland — Anglo-Saxons re-establish Paganism in England — Columba at Iona — Evangelical Teaching — Presbytery and Episcopacy in Great Britain — Continental Missions of the Britons — An Omission Page

 

CHAPTER 2

 

Pope Gregory the Great — Desires to reduce Britain — Policy of Gregory and Augustine — Arrival of the Mission — Appreciation — Britain superior to Rome — Dionoth at Bangor — First and Second Romish Aggressions — Anguish of the Britons — Pride of Rome — Rome has recourse to the Sword — Massacre — Saint Peter scourges an Archbishop — Oswald — His Victory — Corman — Mission of Oswald and Aidan — Death of Oswald

 

CHAPTER 3

 

Character of Oswy — Death of Aidan — Wilfrid at Rome — At Oswald’s Court — Finan and Colman — Independence of the Church attacked — Oswy’s Conquests and Troubles — Synodus Pharensis — Cedda — Degeneration — The Disputation — Peter, the Gatekeeper — Triumph of Rome — Grief of the Britons — Popedom organized in England — Papal Exultation — Archbishop Theodore — Cedda re-ordained — Discord in the Church — Disgrace and Treachery of Wilfrid — His End — Scotland attacked — Adamnan — Iona resists — A King converted by Architects — The Monk Egbert at Iona — His History — Monkish Visions — Fall of Iona

 

CHAPTER 4

 

Clement — Struggle between a Scotchman and an Englishman — Word of God only — Clement’s Success — His Condemnation — Virgil and the Antipodes — John Scotus and Philosophical Religion — Alfred and the Bible — Darkness and Popery — William the Conqueror — Wulston at Edward’s Tomb — Struggle between William and Hildebrand — The Pope yields — Caesaropapia

 

CHAPTER 5

 

Anselm’s Firmness — Becket’s Austerity — The King scourged — John becomes the Pope’s Vassal — Collision between Popery and Liberty — The Vassal King ravages his Kingdom — Religion of the Senses and Superstition

 

CHAPTER 6

 

Reaction — Grostete — Principles of Reform — Contest with the Pope — Sewal — Progress of the Nation — Opposition to the Papacy — Conversion of Bradwardine — Grace is Supreme — Edward III — Statutes of Provisors and Praemunire

 

CHAPTER 7

 

The Mendicant Friars — Their Disorders and Popular Indignation — Wickliffe — His Success — Speeches of the Peers against the Papal Tribute — Agreement of Bruges — Courtenay and Lancaster — Wickliffe before the Convocation — Altercation between Lancaster and Courtenay — Riot — Three Briefs against Wickliffe — Wickliffe at Lambeth — Mission of the Poor Priests — Their Preachings and Persecutions — Wickliffe and the Four Regents

 

CHAPTER 8

 

The Bible — Wickliffe’s Translation — Effects of its Publication — Opposition of the Clergy — Wickliffe’s Fourth Phasis — Transubstantiation — Excommunication — Wickliffe’s Firmness — Wat Tyler — The Synod — The Condemned Propositions — Wickliffe’s Petition — Wickliffe before the Primate at Oxford — Wickliffe summoned to Rome — His Answer — The Trialogue — His Death — And Character — His Teaching — His Ecclesiastical Views — A Prophecy

 

CHAPTER 9

 

The Wickliffites — Call for Reform — Richard II — The First Martyr — Lord Cobham — Appears before Henry V — Before the Archbishop — His Confession and Death — The Lollards

 

CHAPTER 10

 

Learning at Florence — The Tudors — Erasmus visits England — Sir Thomas More — Dean Colet — Erasmus and young Henry — Prince Arthur and Catherine — Marriage and Death — Catherine betrothed to Henry — Accession of Henry VIII — Enthusiasm of the Learned — Erasmus recalled to England — Cromwell before the Pope — Catherine proposed to Henry — Their Marriage and Court — Tournaments — Henry’s Danger

 

CHAPTER 11

 

The Pope excites to War — Colet’s Sermon at St Paul’s — The Flemish Campaign — Marriage of Louis XII and Princess Mary — Letter from Anne Boleyn — Marriage of Brandon and Mary — Oxford — Sir Thomas More at Court — Attack upon the Monasteries — Colet’s Household — He preaches Reform — The Greeks and Trojans

 

CHAPTER 12

 

Wolsey — His first Commission — His Complaisance and Dioceses — Cardinal, Chancellor, and Legate — Ostentation and Necromancy — His Spies and Enmity — Pretensions of the Clergy

 

CHAPTER 13

 

The Wolves — Richard Hun — A Murder — Verdict of the Jury — Hun condemned, and his Character vindicated — The Gravesend Passageboat — A Festival disturbed — Brown tortured — Visit from his Wife — A Martyr — Character of Erasmus — and — Erasmus goes to Basle

 

BOOK 18 THE REVIVAL OF THE CHURCH

 

CHAPTER 1

 

Four reforming Powers — Which reformed England? — Papal Reform?— Episcopal Reform? — Royal Reform? — What is required in a legitimate Reform? — The Share of the Kingly Power — Share of the Episcopal Authority — High and Low Church — Political Events — The Greek and Latin New Testament — Thoughts of Erasmus — Enthusiasm and Anger — Desire of Erasmus — Clamors of the Priests — Their Attack at Court — Astonishment of Erasmus — His Labors for this Work — Edward Lee; his Character — Lee’s Tragedy — Conspiracy

 

CHAPTER 2

 

Effects of the New Testament in the Universities — Conversations — A Cambridge Fellow — Bilney buys the New Testament — The First Passage — His Conversion — Protestantism, the Fruit of the Gospel — The Vale of the Severn — William Tyndale — Evangelization at Oxford — Bilney teaches at Cambridge — Fryth — Is Conversion possible? — True Consecration — The Reformation has begun

 

CHAPTER 3

 

Alarm of the Clergy — The Two Days — Thomas Man’s Preaching — True real Presence — Persecutions at Coventry — Standish preaches at St Paul’s — His Petition to the King and Queen — His Arguments and Defeat — Wolsey’s Ambition — First Overtures — Henry and Francis Candidates for the Empire — Conference between Francis I and Sir T 50 Boleyn — The Tiara promised to Wolsey — The Cardinal’s Intrigues with Charles and Francis

 

CHAPTER 4

 

Tyndale — Sodbury Hall — Sir John and Lady Walsh — Table-talk — The Holy Scriptures — The Images — The Anchor of Faith — A Roman Camp — Preaching of Faith and Works — Tyndale accused by the Priests — They tear up what he has planted — Tyndale resolves to translate the Bible — His first Triumph — The Priests in the Taverns — Tyndale summoned before the Chancellor of Worcester — Consoled by an aged Doctor — Attacked by a Schoolman — His Secret becomes known — He leaves Sodbury Hall

 

CHAPTER 5

 

Luther’s Works in England — Consultation of the Bishops — The Bull of Leo X published in England — Luther’s Books burnt — Letter of Henry VIII — He undertakes to write against Luther — Cry of Alarm — Tradition and Sacramentalism — Prudence of Sir T More — The Book presented to the Pope — Defender of the Faith — Exultation of the King

 

CHAPTER 6

 

Wolsey’s Machinations to obtain the Tiara — He gains Charles V — Alliance between Henry and Charles — Wolsey offers to command the Troops — Treaty of Bruges — Henry believes himself King of France — Victories of Francis I — Death of Leo X

 

CHAPTER 7

 

The Just Men of Lincolnshire — Their Assemblies and Teaching — Agnes and Morden — Itinerant Libraries — Polemical Conversations — Sarcasm — Royal Decree and Terror — Depositions and Condemnations — Four Martyrs — A Conclave — Charles consoles Wolsey

 

CHAPTER 8

 

Character of Tyndale — He arrives in London — He preaches — The Cloth and the Ell — The Bishop of London gives Audience to Tyndale — He is dismissed — A Christian Merchant of London — Spirit of Love in the Reformation — Tyndale in Monmouth’s House — Fryth helps him to translate the New Testament — Importunities of the Bishop of Lincoln — Persecution in London — Tyndale’s Resolution — He departs — His Indignation against the Prelates — His Hopes

 

CHAPTER 9

 

Bilney at Cambridge — Conversions — The University Cross-bearer — A Leicestershire Farmer — A Party of Students — Superstitious Practices — An obstinate Papist — The Sophists — Latimer attacks Stafford — Bilney’s Resolution — Latimer hears Bilney’s Confession — Confessor converted — New Life in Latimer — Bilney preaches Grace — Nature of the Ministry — Latimer’s Character and Teaching — Works of Charity — Three Classes of Adversaries — Clark and Dalaber

 

CHAPTER 10

 

Wolsey seeks the Tiara — Clement VII is elected — Wolsey’s Dissimulation — Charles offers France to Henry — Pace’s Mission on this Subject — Wolsey reforms the Convents — His secret Alliances — Treaty between France and England — Taxation and Insurrection — False Charges against the Reformers — Latimer’s Defense — Tenterden Steeple

 

CHAPTER 11

 

Tyndale at Hamburg — First two Gospels — Embarrassment — Tyndale at Wittemberg — At Cologne — The New Testament at Press — Sudden Interruption — Cochlaeus at Cologne — Rupert’s Manuscripts — Discovery of Cochlaeus — His Inquiries — His Alarm — Rincke and the Senate’s Prohibition — Consternation and Decision of Tyndale — Cochlaeus writes to England — Tyndale ascends the Rhine — Prints two Editions at Worms — Tyndale’s Prayer

 

CHAPTER 12

 

Worms and Cambridge — St Paul resuscitated — Latimer’s Preaching — Never Man spake like this Man — Joy and Vexation at Cambridge — Sermon by Prior Buckingham — Irony — Latimer’s Reply to Buckingham — The Students threatened — Latimer preaches before the Bishop — He is forbidden to preach — The most zealous of Bishops — Barnes the Restorer of Letters — Bilney undertakes to convert him — Barnes offers his Pulpit to Latimer — Fryth’s Thirst for God — Christmas Eve, — Storm against Barnes — Ferment in the Colleges — Germany at Cambridge — Meetings at Oxford — General Expectation

 

BOOK 19 THE ENGLISH NEW TESTAMENT AND THE COURT OF ROME

 

CHAPTER 1

 

Church and State essentially distinct — Their fundamental Principles — What restores Life to the Church — Separation from Rome necessary — Reform and Liberty — The New Testament crosses the Sea — Is hidden in London — Garret’s Preaching and Zeal — Dissemination of Scripture — What the People find in it — The Effects it produces — Tyndale’s Explanations — Roper, More’s Son-in-law — Garret carries Tyndale’s Testament to Oxford — Henry and his Valet — The Supplication of the Beggars — Two Sorts of Beggars — Evils caused by Priests — More’s Supplications of the Souls in Purgatory

 

CHAPTER 2

 

The two Authorities — Commencement of the Search — Garret at Oxford — His Flight — His Return and Imprisonment — Escapes and takes Refuge with Dalaber — Garret and Dalaber at Prayer — The Magnificat — Surprise among the Doctors — Clark’s Advice — Fraternal Love at Oxford — Alarm of Dalaber — His Arrest and Examination — He is tortured — Garret and twenty Fellows imprisoned — The Cellar — Condemnation and Humiliation

 

CHAPTER 3

 

Persecution at Cambridge — Barnes arrested — A grand Search — Barnes at Wolsey’s Palace — Interrogated by the Cardinal — Conversation between Wolsey and Barnes — Barnes threatened with the Stake — His Fall and public Penance — Richard Bayfield — His Faith and Imprisonment — Visits Cambridge — Joins Tyndale — The Confessors in the Cellar at Oxford — Four of them die — The rest liberated

 

CHAPTER 4

 

Luther’s Letter to the King — Henry’s Anger — His Reply — Luther’s Resolution — Persecutions — Barnes escapes — Proclamations against the New Testament — W Roy to Caiaphas — Third Edition of the New Testament — The Triumph of Law and Liberty — Hackett attacks the Printer — Hackett’s Complaints — A Seizure — The Year in England

 

CHAPTER 5

 

Wolsey desires to be revenged — The Divorce suggested — Henry’s Sentiments towards the Queen — Wolsey’s first Steps — Longland’s Proceedings — Refusal of Margaret of Valois — Objection of the Bishop of Tarbes — Henry’s Uneasiness — Catherine’s Alarm — Mission to Spain

 

CHAPTER 6

 

Anne Boleyn appointed Maid of Honor to Catherine — Lord Percy becomes attached to her — Wolsey separates them — Anne enters Margaret’s Household — Siege of Rome; Cromwell — Wolsey’s Intercession for the Popedom — He demands the Hand of Renee of France for Henry — Failure — Anne reappears at Court — Repels the King’s Advances — Henry’s Letter — He resolves to accelerate the Divorce — Two Motives which induce Anne to refuse the Crown — Wolsey’s Opposition

 

CHAPTER 7

 

Bilney’s Preaching — His Arrest — Arthur’s Preaching and Imprisonment — Bilney’s Examination — Contest between the Judge and the Prisoner — Bilney’s Weakness and Fall — His Terrors — Two Wants — Arrival of the Fourth Edition of the New Testament — Joy among the Believers

 

CHAPTER 8

 

The Papacy intercepts the Gospel — The King consults Sir Thomas More — Ecclesiastical Conferences about the Divorce — The Universities — Clarke — The Nun of Kent — Wolsey decides to do the King’s Will — Mission to the Pope — Four Documents — Embarrassment of Charles V — Francis Philip at Madrid — Distress and Resolution of Charles — He turns away from the Reformation — Conference at the Castle of St Angelo — Knight arrives in Italy — His Flight — Treaty between the Pope and the Emperor — Escape of the Pope — Confusion of Henry VIII — Wolsey’s Orders — His Entreaties

 

CHAPTER 9

 

The English Envoys at Orvieto — Their Oration to the Pope — Clement gains Time — The Envoys and Cardinal Sanctorum Quatuor — Stratagem of the Pope — Knight discovers it and returns — The Transformations of Antichrist — The English obtain a new Document — Fresh Stratagem — Demand of a second Cardinal-legate — The Pope’s new Expedient — End of the Campaign

 

CHAPTER 10

 

Disappointment in England — War declared against Charles V — Wolsey desires to get him deposed by the Pope — A new Scheme — Embassy of Fox and Gardiner — Their Arrival at Orvieto — Their first Interview with Clement — The Pope reads a Treatise by Henry — Gardiner’s Threats and Clement’s Promise — The Modern Fabius — Fresh Interview and Menaces — The Pope has not the Key — Gardiner’s Proposition — Difficulties and Delays of the Cardinals — Gardiner’s last Blows — Reverses of Charles V in Italy — The Pope’s Terror and Concession — The Commission granted — Wolsey demands the Engagement — A Loophole — The Pope’s Distress

 

CHAPTER 11

 

Fox’s Report to Henry and Anne — Wolsey’s Impression — He demands the Decretal — One of the Cardinal’s petty Manoeuvers — He sets his Conscience at Rest — Gardiner fails at Rome — Wolsey’s new Perfidy — The King’s Anger against the Pope — Sir T More predicts Religious Liberty — Immorality of Ultramontane Socialism — Erasmus invited — Wolsey’s last Flight — Energetic Efforts at Rome — Clement grants all — Wolsey triumphs — Union of Rome and England

 

BOOK 20 THE TWO DIVORCES

 

CHAPTER 1

 

Progress of the Reformation — The two Divorces — Entreaties to Anne Boleyn — The Letters in the Vatican — Henry to Anne — Henry’s Second Letter — Third — Fourth — Wolsey’s Alarm — His fruitless Proceedings — He turns — The Sweating Sickness — Henry’s Fears — New Letters to Anne — Anne falls sick; her Peace — Henry writes to her — Wolsey’s Terror — Campeggio does not arrive — All dissemble at Court

 

CHAPTER 2

 

Coverdale and Inspiration — He undertakes to translate the Scriptures — His Joy and Spiritual Songs — Tyball and the Laymen — Coverdale preaches at Bumpstead — Revival at Colchester — Incomplete Societies and the New Testament — Persecution — Monmouth arrested and released

 

CHAPTER 3

 

Political Changes — Fresh Instructions from the Pope to Campeggio — His Delays — He unbosoms himself to Francis — A Prediction — Arrival of Campeggio — Wolsey’s Uneasiness — Henry’s Satisfaction — The Cardinal’s Project — Campeggio’s Reception — First Interview with the Queen and with the King — Useless Efforts to make Campeggio part with the Decretal — The Nuncio’s Conscience — Public Opinion — Measures taken by the King — His Speech to the Lords and Aldermen — Festivities — Wolsey seeks French Support — Contrariety

 

CHAPTER 4

 

True Catholicity — Wolsey — Harman’s Matter — West sent to Cologne — Labors of Tyndale and Fryth — Rincke at Frankfort — He makes a Discovery — Tyndale at Marburg — West returns to England — His Tortures in the Monastery

 

CHAPTER 5

 

Necessity of the Reformation — Wolsey’s Earnestness with Da Casale — An Audience with Clement VII — Cruel Position of the Pope — A Judas Kiss — A new Brief — Bryan and Vannes sent to Rome — Henry and Du Bellay — Wolsey’s Reasons against the Brief — Excitement in London — Metamorphosis — Wolsey’s Decline — His Anguish

 

CHAPTER 6

 

The Pope’s Illness — Wolsey’s Desire — Conference about the Members of the Conclave — Wolsey’s Instructions — The Pope recovers — Speech of the English Envoys to the Pope — Clement willing to abandon England — The English demand the Pope’s Denial of the Brief — Wolsey’s Alarm — Intrigues — Bryan’s Clearsightedness — Henry’s Threats — Wolsey’s new Efforts — He calls for an Appeal to Rome, and retracts — Wolsey and Du Bellay at Richmond — The Ship of the State

 

CHAPTER 7

 

Discussion between the Evangelicals and the Catholics — Union of Learning and Life — The Laity: Tewkesbury — His Appearance before the Bishops’ Court — He is tortured — Two Classes of Opponents — A Theological Duel — Scripture and the Church — Emancipation of the Mind — Mission to the Low Countries — Tyndale’s Embarrassment — Tonstall wishes to buy the Books — Packington’s Stratagem — Tyndale departs for Antwerp — His Shipwreck — Arrival at Hamburg — Meets Coverdale

 

CHAPTER 8

 

The Royal Session — Sitting of the th June; the Queen’s Protest — Sitting of the st June — Summons to the King and Queen — Catherine’s Speech — She retires — Impression on the Audience — The King’s Declaration — Wolsey’s Protest — Quarrel between the Bishops — New Sitting — Apparition to the Maid of Kent — Wolsey chafed by Henry — The Earl of Wiltshire at Wolsey’s — Private Conference between Catherine and the two Legates

 

CHAPTER 9

 

The Trial resumed — Catherine summoned — Twelve Articles — The Witnesses’ Evidence — Arthur and Catherine really married — Campeggio opposes the Argument of Divine Right — Other Arguments — The Legates required to deliver Judgment — Their Tergiversations — Change in Men’s Minds — Final Session — General Expectation — Adjournment during Harvest — Campeggio excuses this Impertinence — the King’s Indignation — Suffolk’s Violence — Wolsey’s Reply — He is ruined — General Accusations — The Cardinal turns to an Episcopal Life

 

CHAPTER 10

 

Anne Boleyn at Hever — She reads the Obedience of a Christian Man — Is recalled to Court — Miss Gainsford and George Zouch — Tyndale’s Book converts Zouch — Zouch in the Chapel-Royal — The Book seized — Anne applies to Henry — The King reads the Book — Pretended 58 Influence of the Book on Henry — The Court at Woodstock — The Park and its Goblins — Henry’s Esteem for Anne

 

CHAPTER 11

 

Embarrassment of the Pope — The Triumphs of Charles decide him — He traverses the Cause to Rome — Wolsey’s Dejection — Henry’s Wrath — His Fears — Wolsey obtains Comfort — Arrival of the two Legates at Grafton — Wolsey’s Reception by Henry — Wolsey and Norfolk at Dinner — Henry with Anne — Conference between the King and the Cardinal — Wolsey’s Joy and Grief — The Supper and Euston — Campeggio’s Farewell Audience — Wolsey’s Disgrace — Campeggio at Dover — He is accused by the Courtiers — Leaves England — Wolsey foresees his own Fall and that of the Papacy

 

CHAPTER 12

 

A Meeting at Waltham — Youth of Thomas Cranmer — His early Education — Studies Scripture for three years — His Functions as Examiner — The Supper at Waltham — New View of the Divorce — Fox communicates it to Henry — Cranmer’s Vexation — Conference with the King — Cranmer at the Boleyns

 

CHAPTER 13

 

Wolsey in the Court of Chancery — Accused by the Dukes — Refuses to give up the Great Seal — His Despair — He gives up the Seal — Order to depart — His inventory — Alarm — The Scene of Departure — Favorable Message from the King — Wolsey’s Joy — His Fool — Arrival at Esher

 

CHAPTER 14

 

Thomas More elected Chancellor — A lay Government one of the great Facts of the Reformation — Wolsey accused of subordinating England to the Pope — He implores the King’s Clemency — His Condemnation — Cromwell at Esher — His Character — He sets out for London — Sir Christopher Hales recommends him to the King — Cromwell’s Interview with Henry in the Park — A new Theory — Cromwell elected Member of Parliament — Opened by Sir Thomas More — Attack on ecclesiastical Abuses — Reforms pronounced by the Convocation — Three Bills — Rochester attacks them — Resistance of the House of Commons — Struggles — Henry sanctions the three Bills — Alarm of the Clergy and Disturbances

 

CHAPTER 15

 

The last Hour — More’s Fanaticism — Debates in Convocation — Royal Proclamation — The Bishop of Norwich — Sentences condemned — Latimer’s Opposition — The New Testament burnt — The Persecution begins — Hitton — Bayfield — Tonstall and Packington — Bayfield arrested — The Rector Patmore — Lollards’ Tower — Tyndale and Patmore — a Musician — Freese the Painter — Placards and Martyrdom of Bennet — Thomas More and John Petit — Bilney

 

CHAPTER 16

 

Wolsey’s Terror — Impeachment by the Peers — Cromwell saves him — The Cardinal’s Illness — Ambition returns to him — His Practices in Yorkshire — He is arrested by Northumberland — His Departure — Arrival of the Constable of the Tower — Wolsey at Leicester Abbey — Persecuting Language — He dies — Three Movements: Supremacy, Scripture, and Faith