of Systematic Theology
Theological Seminary, Madison, New Jersey
Scientific Basis of Theology.
Systemization a Right of Theology.
PART I.— THEISM
PROOFS OF THEISM.
III. ANTITHEISTIC THEORIES.
PART II.— THEOLOGY.
part is for the discussion of truths relating directly to God. For the
representation of these truths we place at its head the single term
theology. Some think that its modern use in a much wider sense renders
it inappropriate for such representation. Hence we often find with it
some interpretative phrase or limiting word. We thus have, in form,
theology—doctrine of God; oftener, theology proper. This is neither
graceful in style nor definitive in sense. Appropriateness still lies in
the etymological sense. Theology thus means a doctrine of God, and may
properly represent all the truths more directly relating to him.
Primarily it was used in this sense. We so use it here; and we thus
secure a symmetry of terms not otherwise attainable for the several
parts of systematic theology.
GOD IN BEING.
GOD IN PERSONALITY.
III. GOD’S ATTRIBUTES.
DIVINE PREDICABLES NOT DISTINCTIVELY ATTRIBUTES.
GOD IN TRINITY.
THE SON OF GOD.
VII. THE HOLY SPIRIT.
VIII. TRUTH OF THE TRINITY.
GOD IN CREATION.
GOD IN PROVIDENCE.
PART III.— ANTHROPOLOGY.
one term, anthropology, has both a theological and a scientific use.
Theological anthropology deals with the facts of man’s moral and
religious constitution and history as related to Christian doctrine,
while scientific anthropology deals with his specifical characteristics.
However, in the latter case there are wide variations. With naturalists
anthropology means the natural history of the race. With German
philosophers the term is so broadened as to include psychology,
sociology, and ethics, together with anatomy and physiology.
Hence in works with the common title of anthropology there is a great
difference in the range of topics. In the wider range some things are
included which belong also to theology. However, enough difference still
remains for the division into a scientific and a theological
should be noted that this distinction simply differentiates topics, not
methods of treatment. It is not meant that the treatment of scientific
anthropology is any more scientific than the treatment of theological
a philosophy of religion all the facts which concern the moral and
religious constitution and history of man might properly be called
anthropological. This would greatly broaden the term, as we found it
broadened in the scientific sphere. In an evangelical theology, however,
the view of anthropology is largely determined by its relation to the
mediation of Christ. Man is thus viewed as in need of redemption and
salvation. This need arises from the fact of sin, or the common sinful
state of man. This state is the chief question of doctrinal
anthropology. It is, in accordance with theological formulation, the
doctrine of sin. But a proper treatment of this doctrine requires a
previous treatment of primitive man, his probation and fall, and the
consequence of that moral lapse to the race. With this question of
consequence the further question of our relation to the Adamic probation
arises—whether it was such as to involve us in the guilt and
punishment of Adam’s sin. There is still a further question—whether
the common native depravity, as consequent to the Adamic fall, has in
itself the demerit of sin. We have thus indicated, in a summary way, the
leading questions of anthropology in a system of Christian doctrine. In
their discussion they will appear in their proper order, and with more
questions are not simply of speculative interest, or merely incidental
to a system of Christian theology, but intrinsic and determining. In any
system, whether evangelical or rationalistic, the anthropology and
soteriology must be in scientific accordance. If we start from the side
of anthropology, our soteriology must follow accordingly. If we proceed
in the reverse order, a like consequence must follow for our
anthropology. If our present state is the same as our primitive state,
if there is no moral lapse of the race, and no common native depravity,
there can be no need of a redemptive mediation in Christ, nor of
regeneration through the agency of the Holy Spirit. To allege any such
necessity is to assume an original constitution of man in a state of
moral evil and ruin. No theory of Christianity can rationally admit such
an implication. With a moral lapse of the race and a common native
depravity, we need the redemptive mediation of Christ, and the offices
of the Holy Spirit in our regeneration and spiritual life. For the
reality of these facts we require the divinity of the Christ, the
personality and divinity of the Holy Spirit. With these truths we
require the truth of the divine Trinity. On a denial of the primitive
lapse and moral ruin of the race, all these great truths may be
dismissed. They can have no proper place in theology. So intrinsic and
determining is the doctrine of anthropology in a system of Christian
theology. “Original sin is the foundation upon which we must build the
teaching of Christian theology. This universal evil is the primary fact,
the leading truth whence the science takes its departure; and it is this
which forms the peculiar distinction of theology from sciences which
work their own advancement by the powers of reason.”
Krauth-Fleming: Vocabulary of
the Philosophical Sciences, Anthropology.
III. QUESTION OF PRIMITIVE HOLINESS.
THE PRIMITIVE PROBATION.
TEMPTATION AND FALL OF MAN.
DOCTRINE OF NATIVE DEPRAVITY.
VII. PROOFS OF NATIVE DEPRAVITY.
VIII. ORIGIN OF DEPRAVITY.
REALISTIC MODE OF ADAMIC SIN.
REPRESENTATIVE MODE OF ADAMIC GUILT.
GENETIC LAW OF NATIVE DEPRAVITY.
XII. DOCTRINE OF NATIVE DEMERIT.
λόγος—has Christ for its subject, and might
properly include his divinity and subsistence in the Trinity; his
incarnation and unique personality; his prophetic, priestly, and kingly
offices. Such truths are central to Christianity, and determinative of
what it is in itself, and in distinction from other religions. Their
inclusion in Christology would give to it a very wide scope. Then, in
addition to the range of its own legitimate topics, the subject is
greatly broadened in its doctrinal history. Few questions in theology
have been more persistently or deeply discussed. The fact is quite
natural to the intrinsic importance of the subject. Besides, the
discussion has been intensified by the divergences of doctrinal views of
the present, however, we are specially concerned with the one question
of the person of Christ. This does not mean the omission of other great
topics of Christology. They
must be included in a system of Christian theology because they involve
fundamental truths of the system. Some of them are inseparably connected
with the question of the person of Christ, but may be more appropriately
discussed in other parts of the system. The question of personality is
itself a subject of wide scope. It is such m the range of its own
topics, and also in its doctrinal history. It is the one question of
Christology which has been most in discussion. Opposing views have been
maintained; and the issues thus raised have been regarded, not as
matters of merely speculative interest, but as questions of the
profoundest religious concern. The result is that the theories and
discussions respecting the person of Christ occupy a large place in the
history of Christian doctrine. Any one who wishes to study these
discussions can readily find ample resources in the literature which
they have produced, particularly in Corner’s great work on the
development of the history of the doctrine of the person of Christ.
However, systematic theology is concerned with this history only so far
as it may be helpful in reaching the true doctrine.
CHAPTER I. THE PERSON OF
CHAPTER II. THE DIVINE
CHAPTER III. CHRIST IS
CHAPTER IV. THE SYMPATHY OF
CHAPTER V. LEADING ERRORS IN
THE ATONEMENT IN CHRIST.
CHAPTER I. REALITY OF
CHAPTER II. NECESSITY FOR
CHAPTER III. SCHEMES WITHOUT
CHAPTER IV. THEORIES OF
CHAPTER V. THEORY OF MORAL
CHAPTER VI. THEORY OF
CHAPTER VII. GOVERNMENTAL
CHAPTER VIII. SUFFICIENCY OF THE
CHAPTER IX. OBJECTIONS TO THE
CHAPTER X. A LESSON FOR ALL
CHAPTER XI. UNIVERSALITY OF THE
THE SALVATION IN CHRIST.
CHAPTER I. BENEFITS OF THE
CHAPTER II. DOCTRINAL
CHAPTER III. FREE
CHAPTER IV. FREEDOM OF
CHAPTER V. JUSTIFICATION.
CHAPTER VI. REGENERATION.
CHAPTER VII. ASSURANCE.
CHAPTER VIII. SANCTIFICATION.
CHAPTER IX. THE CHURCH.
is the doctrine of the last things, and comprises the questions
respecting the intermediate state, the second advent, the resurrection,
the judgment, and the destinies of the evil and the good. Underlying
these questions, however, is the deeper one of a future existence,
without the truth of which they have for us no interest—indeed, no
reality—but with the truth of which they have for us the deepest
concern. In view of such facts it is proper, first of all, to consider
the question of a future existence.
CHAPTER I. FUTURE
CHAPTER II. THE INTERMEDIATE
CHAPTER III. THE SECOND
CHAPTER IV. THE
CHAPTER V. THE JUDGMENT.
CHAPTER VI. FUTURE
CHAPTER VII. FUTURE
I. INSPIRATION OF THE
II. THE ANGELS.
III. ARMINIAN TREATMENT OF ORIGINAL