LAWTON CHURCH OF GOD, LAWTON OKLAHOMA

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CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY

 

A Systematic Statement of Christian Doctrine for the Use of Theological Students

 

RUSSELL R. BYRUM

1924

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

by F. G. Smith

 

PREFACE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

I.         Idea and Contents of Theology

           1.     Definition

           2.     Religion and Theology

           3.     Main Divisions of Theological Science

           4.     Other Designating Terms Used with Theology

           5.     Uses of the Term ďTheologyĒ as to Extent

II.       Importance and Value of Theology

          1.      Needed for Clear Conceptions

          2.      Needed for Strong Convictions

          3.      Needed for Intellectual Satisfaction

III.       Sources of Theology

1.      Nature a Source of Theology

2.      Revelation the Source of Theology

3.      Erroneous Sources of Theology

IV.       Method of Theology

1.      Need of System

2.      Various Methods of Systemization

3.      Method of This Work

4.      Terminology

V.       Qualifications for the Study of Theology

           1.     Spiritual Qualifications

           2.     Qualities of the Mind

           3.     Educational Qualifications

 

PART I.

 

EXISTENCE OF GOD, OR THEISM

 

CHAPTER 1: ORIGIN OF OUR IDEA OF GOD

 

I.         The Knowledge of God as an Intuition

           1.    Intuitions in General

           2.    Proofs that the Idea of God Is an Intuition

II.        Other Supposed Sources of the Idea

1.      From Animistic Superstition

2.      Exclusively from Revelation

3.      From a Process of Reasoning

III.       What Does This Intuition Contain?

 

CHAPTER 2: EVIDENCES OF GODíS EXISTENCE

 

I.         The First Cause, or Cosmological, Argument

           1.    The Law of Causation

           2.    The Universe as Effect

           3.     What the Argument Proves

II.        The Design, or Teleological, Argument

1.      Nature of the Argument

2.      Evidences of Design in Nature

3.      Objections to the Design Argument

III.       The Human-nature, or Anthropological, Argument

1.      The Argument Described

2.      Argument from Manís Intelligence

3.      Argument from Manís Freedom

4.      Argument from Manís Moral Nature

5.      Argument from Manís Religious Nature

6.      Objections to the Human-nature Argument

IV.      The Ontological Argument

1.      Statement of the Argument

2.      Theistic Value of the Argument

 

CHAPTER 3: ANTITHEISTIC THEORIES

 

I.         Atheism

           1.     Sense of Atheism

           2.     Unreasonableness of Atheism

           3.     Possibility of Atheism

II.        Polytheism

1.      Meaning and Origin of Polytheism

2.      Different Aspects of Polytheism

III.       Pantheism

1.      Definition of Pantheism

2.      Monistic Aspects of Pantheism

3.      Defects of Pantheism

IV.       Materialism

1.      Atheistic Character of Materialism

2.      Fruitless Attempt to Account for Thought

3.      Reasoning from Analogy Defective

V.       Naturalistic Evolution

          1.      Evolution Hypothesis

          2.      Naturalistic and Theistic Evolution

          3.      Difficulties of Naturalistic Evolution

 

PART II.

 

EVIDENCES OF DIVINE REVELATION, OR APOLOGETICS

 

CHAPTER 1: PRELIMINARY QUESTIONS AND PRESUMPTIVE EVIDENCES

 

I.         Proposition to be Proved

           1.     The Question Stated

           2.     The Incomparable Importance of the Subject

           3.     Present-day Task of Apologetics

II.        Nature and Classification of Evidences

1.      Probable, not Demonstrative, Proofs

2.      Rational and Authenticating Evidences

3.      Main Classes of Positive Evidences

III.       Probability of a Divine Revelation

1.      Possibility of Revelation

2.      Necessary as a Standard of Right

3.      Necessary for Pardon of Sin

4.      Necessary to the Understanding of Providence and Prayer

IV.       Marks of Divine Revelation to be Expected Characterize the Scriptures

1.      Probable Contents of Divine Revelation

2.      Probable Manner of Divine Revelation

3.      Probable Attestation of Divine Revelation

 

CHAPTER 2: EXTERNAL EVIDENCES

 

I.         Genuineness of the New Testament

           1.    Method of Showing Genuineness

           2.    Genuineness Affirmed by Early Church Fathers

           3.    Genuineness Insured by Carefulness in Determining the Canon

           4.     Early Adversaries Never Denied Genuineness

II.        Integrity of the New Testament

1.      Evidence from Ancient Manuscripts

2.      Corroboration of Ancient Versions and Quotations

3.      No Material Change Possible

III.      Credibility of the New Testament History

          1.      Credibility of the Gospel History Accepted by Those Familiar with the Events

          2.      The Writers Possessed the Requisites for Credibility

IV.      Miracles

1.      Possibility and Probability of Miracles

2.      Possibility of Proving Miracles by Testimony

3.      Proofs that Miracles Occurred

4.      Proof of the Resurrection of Christ

5.      Evidential Value of Miracles

V.       Prophecy

           1.     Nature of the Argument from Fulfilled Prophecy

           2.     Objections to the Argument from Prophecy

           3.     Predictions Concerning the Jews

           4.     Predictions Concerning Christ

 

CHAPTER 3: INTERNAL EVIDENCES

 

I.         Perfect Doctrines

           1.     Godís Being and Attributes

           2.     Manís Moral Responsibility and Freedom

           3.     Manís Depravity and Guilt

           4.     Manís Spirituality and Immortality

II.        Perfect Adaptation to Manís Needs

1.      Salvation from Sin and Depravity

2.      Enlightenment and Comfort

3.      Resurrection of the Body

III.       Perfect Morals

1.      A Perfect Standard of Right

2.      A Perfect Measurement of Conduct

3.      Perfect Practicality

IV.      Style and Incidental Allusions

1.      Unity of the Scriptures

2.      Languages and Literary Style

3.      Historical Events

4.      Incidental Allusions

 

CHAPTER 4: EXPERIMENTAL AND COLLATERAL EVIDENCES

 

I.         Evidences from Christian Experience

           1.     Nature of Experimental Evidences

           2.     Effects of Christian Experiences in Consciousness

           3.     Effects of Christianity at the Hour of Death

II.        Effects of Christianity on Society

1.      Promotion of Universal Brotherhood by the Gospel

2.      Domestic Relations Sanctified by the Gospel

III.       Rapid Spread of Christianity in Its Beginning

1.      Hindrances to the Spread of Christianity

2.      Natural Inadequacy of the Means Employed

3.      Rapidity of the Spread of Christianity Unparalleled

 

CHAPTER 5: INSPIRATION OF THE SCRIPTURES

 

I.         Fact and Nature of Inspiration of Scripture

           1.     Proof of Inspiration

           2.     Various Theories of Inspiration

           3.     True Nature of Inspiration

II.        Objections to Inspiration of Scripture from Alleged Errors

1.      Historical Errors

2.      Scientific Errors

3.      Moral Errors

4.      Contradictions

 

PART III.

 

NATURE AND WORKS OF GOD, OR THEOLOGY PROPER

 

CHAPTER 1: THE ATTRIBUTES OF GOD

 

I.         Possibility of Knowledge of God

           1.     God as an Object of Knowledge

           2.     Extent of Manís Knowledge of God

           3.      How God May Be Known

II.        Nature and Classification of Godís Attributes

1.      Relation of Godís Attributes to His Essence

2.      Classification of Attributes

III.       Metaphysical or Non-Ethical Attributes

1.      Unity of God

2.      Spirituality of God

3.      Immutability of God

4.      Eternity of God

5.      Omnipotence of God

6.      Omnipresence of God

7.      Omniscience of God

IV.       Moral Attributes

1.      Holiness

2.      Justice

3.      Love

4.      Mercy

5.      Truth

 

CHAPTER 2: THE DIVINE TRINITY

 

I.         The Doctrine of the Trinity

           1.     Biblical Elements of the Doctrine

           2.     The Doctrine in Early Church Symbols

           3.     The Doctrine Stated

           4.     Mystery of the Trinity

II.        Bible Proofs of the Doctrine

1.      The Baptismal Formula

2.      Paulís Benediction

3.      Other General Trinitarian Texts

III.      The Divinity of Christ

          1.      Divine Titles of Christ

          2.      Divine Attributes of Christ

          3.      Divine Works of Christ

          4.      The Worship of Christ

IV.      The Personality and Divinity of the Holy Spirit

1.      Personality of the Spirit

2.      Divinity of the Holy Spirit

3.      Procession of the Spirit

 

CHAPTER 3: THE WORKS OF GOD

 

I.         Godís Work in Creation

           1.     Matter Created Out of Nothing

           2.     Creative Work Not Necessary to God

           3.     The Genesis Record Historical

           4.     Creation Days and Geological Periods

           5.     Agreement of Moses and Science

II.        Creation and Evolution

1.      Evolution not Godís Method of Creation

2.      Evolution and the Scriptures Irreconcilable

3.      Facts Reconcilable with Progressive Creation

4.      Objections to the Evolution Theory

III.       Godís Work in Providence

1.      Natural Providence

2.      Supernatural Providence

IV.       Angels

1.      Existence and Nature of Angels

2.      Good Angels

3.      Evil Angels

4.      Demon-Possession

 

PART IV.

 

THE DOCTRINE OF MAN, OR ANTHROPOLOGY

 

CHAPTER 1: ORIGIN AND NATURE OF MAN

 

I.         Unity of the Race

           1.     Antiquity of the Race

           2.     Problem of Race Distinctions and Unity

           3.     Physiological Argument

           4.     Psychological Argument

           5.     Philological Argument

           6.     Biblical Argument

II.        Constituent Factors in Manís Nature

1.      Dual Constitution of Man

2.      The Theory of Trichotomy

3.      How Man is Superior to the Brute

III.       The Origin of Souls

1.      Theory of Preexistence

2.      Theory of Creationism

3.      Theory of Traducianism

IV.      The Question of Immortality

1.      Manís Body Created Mortal

2.      The Soul Is Immortal

 

CHAPTER 2: ORIGINAL MORAL NATURE AND STATE OF MAN

 

I.         Primitive Man of a Lofty Grade

           1.     Constitution Relatively Perfect

           2.     Not a Barbarian

           3.     In the Divine Image

II.        Conscience

1.      The Discriminating Function

2.      Impulsive Power

3.      Retributive Aspect

III.       Free Agency

1.      The Question of Freedom Vital to Theology

2.      Leading Theories of the Will

3.      Proofs of Free Will

4.      Objections to Free Will Answered

5.      Real Freedom

IV.       Original Righteousness

1.      Nature of Original Righteousness

2.      Proofs of Original Righteousness

 

CHAPTER 3: FALL AND DEPRAVITY OF THE RACE

 

I.         Original Probation

           1.     Probation Requisite for Moral Excellence

           2.     Positive Probationary Law Given

            3.     No Injustice in Adamís Probation

II.        Origin and Nature of Sin

1.      Nature of the First Temptation

2.      Manís Fall and Its Effects

3.      Nature of Sin

4.      Sin Not a Divine Method

III.       Nature of Original Sin

1.      Sense of the Term

2.      A derangement of the Moral Nature

3.      A Loss of the Holy Spirit

4.      A Bent to Sin a Result of Depravity

IV.       Extent of Native Depravity

1.      The Question of Total Depravity

2.      Degrees of Depravity

V.        Proofs of Native Depravity

           1.     Expressly Taught in the Bible

           2.     Clearly Implied in the Scriptures

           3.     Ground for the Need of Regeneration

           4.     Universality of Sinning

           5.     Sinning in Spite of Restraints

           6.     A Natural Tendency to Sin

 

CHAPTER 4: MODE OF TRANSMISSION OF ORIGINAL SIN

 

I.         Theories of Original Sin

           1.    Pelagian Theory

           2.    Augustinian Theory

           3.    Arminian Theory

II.        Unscriptural Theories of the Transmission of Original Sin

1.      Realistic Theory

2.      Representative Theory

III.       Law of Genetic Transmission

1.      The Genetic Law

2.      Men Are After Their Kind Morally

 

PART V.

 

SALVATION THROUGH CHRIST, OR SOTERIOLOGY

 

CHAPTER 1: THE PERSON OF CHRIST

 

I.         The Doctrine and Its Statement

           1.     A Vital Doctrine

           2.     Elements of the Doctrine

           3.     Creedal Statements

II.        Two Natures in Christ

1.      Complete Human Nature in Christ

2.      Complete Divine Nature in Christ

3.      Incarnation of God in Christ

4.      Mode of the Incarnation

III.       Union of Two Natures in One Person

1.      Personal Oneness of Christ

2.      Christ Is God-Man

3.      Effect of Personal Union of Two Natures

IV.       Criticism of Christological Errors

1.      The Ebionites

2.      The Gnostics

3.      The Arians

4.      The Apollinarians

5.      The Nestorians

6.      The Eutycians

7.      The Lutheran Theory

8.      The Socinian Theory

9.      The Kenotic Theory

 

CHAPTER 2: RECONCILIATION THROUGH CHRIST

 

I.         Preliminary Questions

           1.     Offices of Christ

           2.     Sense of Reconciliation

           3.     The Fact of Atonement and the Doctrine

II.        Theories of Salvation Without a Reconciliation

1.      Impossibility of Pardon

2.      Forgiveness by Divine Prerogative

3.      Pardon or Repentance

III.       Biblical Statements Concerning the Atonement

1.      Christ Died for the Salvation of Men

2.      Christ Died on our Stead

3.      Christ Died to Propitiate God

4.      Christ Died to Redeem Men

5.      Christ Died to Declare Godís Righteousness

IV.       Reconciliation in the Old Testament Sacrifices

1.      Animal Sacrifices Typify Christ

2.      Old Testament Scarifies were Expiatory

V.       Elements in the Biblical Doctrine of Reconciliation

          1.      Subjective Elements

          2.      Objective Elements

 

CHAPTER 3: APPLICATION OF REDEMPTION

 

I.         Unconditional Benefits of the Atonement

           1.     Individual Existence

           2.     Possibility of Universal Salvation

           3.     Salvation for Those Dying in Infancy

           4.     Power Requisite for Probation

II.        Conditional Benefits of the Atonement

1.      Salvation from Sin Conditional

2.      Special Providence Through Prayer

3.      Future Blessedness

III.       Universality of the Opportunity for Salvation

1.      Christ Died for All Men

2.      Salvation is for All Men

3.      The Gospel Is to be Preached to All

4.      God Wills the Salvation of All

IV.       Predestination

1.      The Calvinistic Theory

2.      Election

3.      Absolute Final Preservation

V.       Human Conditions for Salvation

           1.     Faith in Christ

           2.     Repentance

           3.     Obedience

 

CHAPTER 4: NATURE OF SALVATION

 

I          Justification

           1.     Sense of the Term

           2.     Forgiveness and Remission Included

           3.     The Basis for Justification

II.        Regeneration

1.      The Doctrine of Regeneration

2.      The Ground of the Need of Regeneration

3.      Nature and Effects of Regeneration

III.       Sonship

1.      Children of God

2.      Sonship by Adoption

3.      Sonship by Birth

IV.       Consciousness or Assurance of Salvation

1.      Fact of Assurance

2.      Nature of Assurance

3.      Witness of Godís Spirit

4.      Witness of Our Spirit

5.      Assurance in Relation to Doubt

V.        Holiness of Life

           1.     The Sense of the Scriptures

           2.     Definitive Sense of Sin

           3.     Causes Leading to a Denial of Holy Living

           4.     Objections Considered

 

CHAPTER 5: ENTIRE SANCTIFICATION

 

I.         Sense of Sanctification

           1.     Other Designating Terms

           2.     No Specific Scriptural Sense

           3.     Its Sense as Here Used

II.        Need of a Second Cleansing

1.      Depravity a Ground for Twofold Cleansing

2.      Depravity in the Regenerated

3.      Distinctions Between Regeneration and Sanctification

III.       Proofs of a Second Cleansing

1.      Sanctification for the Converted

2.      Sanctification for the Church

3.      An Entire Sanctification

4.      Coincident with the Holy Spirit Baptism

5.      Two Cleansings in Old Testament Type

IV.       Nature of Entire Sanctification

1.      A Real Experience

2.      Effects of Sanctification

3.      A Definite Work

V.       Attainment of Sanctification

          1.      Attainable in this Life

          2.      Conditions for Sanctification

          3.      Assurance of Sanctification

 

CHAPTER 6: BAPTISM WITH THE HOLY SPIRIT

 

I.         Nature of the Baptism with the Holy Spirit

           1.     Expressions Representative of It

           2.     A Definite Experience

           3.     Distinct from Regeneration

           4.     Results of the Baptism with the Spirit

           5.     One Baptism but Many Fillings

II.        Gifts of the Spirit

1.      Nature of Charismata

2.      Not Given Alike to All

3.      When Spiritual Gifts May be Received

III.       The Gift of Tongues

1.      Nature of New Testament Glossolalia

2.      Purpose of Speaking in Tongues

3.      Post-Apostolic Speaking in Tongues

4.      Not Evidence of the Holy Spirit Baptism

5.      Proper Attitude Towards Speaking in Tongues

 

CHAPTER 7: DIVINE PHYSICAL HEALING

 

I.         The Fact of Divine Healing

           1.     Scriptural Examples of Healing

           2.     Post-Apostolic Healing

           3.     A Present Reality

II.        The Reasonableness of Divine Healing

1.      An Aspect of Christís Redemptive Work

2.      Scripture Promises of Healing

3.      The Divine Compassion

III.       Nature of Divine Physical Healing

1.      Definition of Divine Healing

2.      Godís Purpose in Healing

3.      Godís Method of Healing

IV.       Conditions for Healing

1.      Faith and Prayer

2.      Anointing with Oil and Laying on of Hands

3.      Attitude Toward Human Remedies

V.       Objections to Divine Healing

           1.      That It Is Similar to Spiritualistic Healing

           2.      That There Are Failures in Divine Healing

           3.      That God Created Herbs for Medicine

 

PART VI.

 

THE CHURCH, OR ECCLESIOLOGY

 

CHAPTER 1: ORGANIZATION OF THE CHURCH

 

I.         Idea of the Church

           1.     Sense of the Term

           2.     The Universal Church

           3.     The Local Church

           4.     Relation of the Church and Godís Kingdom

II.        The Fact of Its Organization

1.      Theories of the Time of Its Organization

2.      The Fact Stated and Implied in the Bible

3.      Figurative Representations of the Church

III.       Nature of Its Organization

1.      Different Forms of Church Organization

2.      The Church Divinely Organized

3.      The Human Element in Church Organization

IV.       Organization of Operative Agencies

1.      Operative Agencies Needed in the Church

2.      Relation of these Agencies to the Church

 

CHAPTER 2: GOVERNMENT OF THE CHURCH

 

I.         Officers of the Church

           1.     Classes of Officers

           2.     Pastors, or Bishops

           3.     Deacons

II.        Nature of the Government of the Church

1.      A Divine and a Human Aspect

2.      Nature of Ministerial Authority

3.      Number and Choice of Local Church Officers

 

CHAPTER 3: APOSTASY AND RESTORATION OF THE CHURCH

 

I.         The Apostasy of the Church

           1.     Two Aspects of Apostasy Predicted

           2.     A Rejection of the Teaching of the Word of God

           3.     A Rejection of the Rule of the Spirit of God

II.        Sixteenth Century Reformation Partial

1.      A Partial Return to the Bible

2.      Human Ecclesiasticism Continued

3.      Protestant Divisions

III.       A Complete Restoration

1.      Present Tendency to Unity

2.      A Complete Reformation

3.      A Return to the Scriptures

4.      Rejection of Human Ecclesiasticism

 

CHAPTER 4: ORDINANCES OF THE CHURCH

 

I.         Baptism

           1.     The Form of Baptism

           2.     Subjects of Baptism

           3.     Purpose of Baptism

           4.     The Essentials of Baptism

II.        The Lordís Supper

1.      A Christian Ordinance

2.      Method of Observance

3.      Purpose of the Supper

4.      Erroneous Views

III.       Foot-Washing

1.      The Injunction of Jesus

2.      Objections to Foot-Washing Considered

3.      Significance of Foot-Washing

 

PART VII.

 

LAST THINGS, OR ESCHATOLOGY

 

CHAPTER 1: THE LIFE AFTER DEATH

 

I.         Immortality of the Soul

           1.     Rational Evidences

           2.     The Teaching of Scripture

           3.     Theory of Conditional Immortality

II.        The Intermediate State

1.      Question of an Intermediate State

2.      Not a State of Purgatory

3.      Not a State of Probation

 

CHAPTER 2: MILLENARIANISM

 

I.         Two Theories Distinguished

           1.     Postmillenarianism

           2.     Premillenariansim

II.        History of Millenarianism

1.      The Idea Among the Jews

2.      Millenarianism in the Early Church

3.      Modern Premillenarianism

III.       The Kingdom of Christ

1.      Nature of Christís Kingdom

2.      Predictions of the Time of Its Establishment

3.      Christís Kingdom Established at His First Advent

IV.       Hermeneutic Principles

1.      Literal or Figurative Interpretation

2.      Historical Interpretation

V.       Revelation 20:1Ė6

           1.     Millenariansim Not Taught

           2.     Exegesis of Revelation 20:1Ė6

VI.       Objections to Premillenarianism

1.      No Double Resurrection

2.      No Restoration of Judaism

3.      No Three Comings of Christ

4.      No Great Tribulation

5.      No Personal Antichrist

6.      No Need, Time, nor Place for Mllennium

VII.     Premillenarianís Questions

1.      The Earth Full of the Knowledge of the Lord

2.      Universal Peace, Blessings, and Prosperity

 

CHAPTER 3: CHRISTíS SECOND ADVENT AND ITS CONCOMITANTS

 

I.         The Second Coming of Christ

           1.     The Fact of His Coming

           2.     The Nature of His Coming

           3.     The Time of His Coming

           4.     The Signs of His Coming

II.        The General Resurrection

1.      The Fact of a General Resurrection

2.      The Nature of the Resurrected Bodies

3.      The Question of Identity

III.       The Final Judgment

1.      Truth of a Future Judgment

2.      Nature of the Final Judgment

3.      Object of the Final Judgment

4.      Standards of the Final Judgment

IV.       End of the World

1.      Truth of the Destruction of the Earth

2.      Extent of the Destruction of the Earth

 

CHAPTER 4: THE FINAL DISPENSATION

 

I.         Future Punishment

           1.     Proofs of Future Punishment

           2.     Nature of Future Punishment

           3.     Place of Future Punishment

           4.     Duration of Future Punishment

II.        Future Blessedness

1.      The Truth of Future Blessedness

2.      The Place of Future Blessedness

3.      The Nature of Future Blessedness